Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(5), 313-319
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-5-5-5
Open AccessArticle

Adding Adulterants to Coffee Reduces Bioactive Compound Levels and Antioxidant Activity

Fernanda Paola de Pádua Gandra1, Adriene Ribeiro Lima2, Eric Batista Ferreira3, Michel Cardoso De Angelis Pereira4, and Rosemary Gualberto Fonseca Alvarenga Pereira1

1Departament of Food Science, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, Brazil

2Institute of Health and Biological Sciences, University Center-UNA, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

3Institute of Exact Sciences -Federal University of Alfenas, Alfenas, Brazil

4Departament of Nutrition, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, Brazil

Pub. Date: April 24, 2017

Cite this paper:
Fernanda Paola de Pádua Gandra, Adriene Ribeiro Lima, Eric Batista Ferreira, Michel Cardoso De Angelis Pereira and Rosemary Gualberto Fonseca Alvarenga Pereira. Adding Adulterants to Coffee Reduces Bioactive Compound Levels and Antioxidant Activity. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017; 5(5):313-319. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-5-5


The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of coffee adulteration on antioxidant activity in vitro. Coffee beverages were adulterated with different concentrations of coffee hulls, coffee straw, and corn (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 100%) and tested separately. Each coffee beverage was prepared according to the same methods in all of the treatments. Phenolic compound, caffeine, trigonelline, and chlorogenic acid levels were determined in the beverages. Antioxidant activity in vitro was evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, iron chelating activity, and lipoperoxidation inhibition methods. Phenolic compound, caffeine, and chlorogenic acid levels of the samples decreased with increasing adulterant concentration. Adding adulterant reduced the antioxidant capacity tested using all of the methods. The results show that adding coffee hulls, coffee straw, and corn affect the antioxidant capacity of the coffee beverages, reducing protection against oxidative stress.

food oxidative stress health

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Vilela, F.G., Perez, J.R.O., Teixeira, J.C. and Reis, S.T. “Uso da casca de café melosa em diferentes níveis na alimentação de novilhos confinados”. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 25. 198-205. 2001.
[2]  Jham, G.N., Berhow, M.A., Manthey, L.K., Palmquist, D.A. and Vaughn, S. F. “The use of fatty acid profile as a potential marker for Brazilian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) for corn adulteration”. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 19. 1462-1467. 2008.
[3]  Perrone, D.; Farah, A.; Donangelo, C. M. “Influence of coffee roasting on the incorporation of phenolic compounds into melanoidins and their relationship with antioxidant activity of the brew”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(17). 4265-4275. May, 2012.
[4]  Jeszka-Skowron M, Sentkowska A, Pyrzyńska K, De Peña MP. 2016. Chlorogenic acids, caffeine content and antioxidant properties of green coffee extracts: influence of green coffee bean preparation. Eur Food Res Technol 242: 1403-1409.
[5]  Bekedam, E.K., Roos, E., Schols, H.A., Van Boekel, M. and Smit, G. “Low molecular weight melanoidins in coffee brew”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56. 4060-4067. 2008.
[6]  Huang, D., Ou, B. and Prior, R. L.”The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53.1841-1856. 2005.
[7]  Vitorino, M.D., França, A.S., Oliveira, L.S. and Borges.”Metodologia de obtenção de extrato de café visando a dosagem de compostos não voláteis”. Revista Brasileira de Armazenamento, 26. 17-24. 2001.
[8]  Souza, C.M.M., Silva, H.R., Vieira-Jr, G.M., Ayres, M.C.C., Costa, C.L.S., Araújo, D.S., Cavalcante, L.C.D., Barros, E.D.S., Araújo, P.B.M. and Brandão, M.S. “Fenóis totais e atividade antioxidante de cincoplantas medicinais”. Quimica. Nova. 30, 351-355. 2007.
[9]  Dias, D., Ananda Guarda, B.A., Wiethan, L. E., Claussen, D.B., Carvalho, L. M. and Nascimento, P.C. “Influence of ethanethiol in antioxidant activity and in total phenolics concentration of wines. Comparative study against control samples”. J. Food Qual., 36. 432-440. 2013.
[10]  Yen, W.J., Chang, L.W. and Duh, P.D. Antioxidant activity of peanut seed test and its antioxidative component, ethyl protocatechuate. Food Science and Technology, 38. 193-200. 2005.
[11]  Yildirim, A., Oktay, M. and Bulaloúlu, V. “The antixidant activity of the leaves of cydonia vulgaris”. Turkish Journal of Medical Science, 31. 23-27. 2001.
[12]  Tang, S. Z., Kerry, J. P., Sheehan, D. and Buckley, D. J. “Antioxidative mechanisms of tea catechins in chicken meat systems”. Food Chemistry, 76. 45-51.2002.
[13]  Lima, A.R., Pereira, R., Abrahao, S.A., Duarte, S.M.D. and Paula, F.B.D. “Coffee bioactive compounds: in vitro antioxidant activity of green and roasted coffees before and after decaffeination”. Quimica Nova, 33. 20-24. 2010.
[14]  Buege, J. A.; Aust, S. D. Microsomal lipid peroxidation, Methods in Enzymology, 1978, 302-310.
[15]  Paula, F.B.A., Gouvea, C.M.C.P., Alfredo, P.P. and Salgado, I. “Protective action of a hexane crude extract of Pterodon emarginatus fruits against oxidative and nitrosative stress induced by acute exercise in rats”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 5. 17-20. 2005.
[16]  Peterson, G. L.” A simplification of the protein assay method of Lowry et al.which is more generally applicable”. Analytical Biochemistry, 83. 346-356. 1977.
[17]  Durak, A.,Gawlik-Dziki, U. and Kowalska, I. “Coffee with ginger: interactions of biologically active phytochemicals in the model system”. Food Chemistry, 166. 261-269.Jan. 2015.
[18]  Farah, A., Monteiro, M., Donangelo, C.M. and Lafay, S. “Chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract are highly bioavailable in humans”. Journal of Nutrition, 138, 2309-2315. 2008.
[19]  Nogueira, M. and Trugo, L.C. “Chlorogenic acid isomers, caffeine and trigonellin contents in Brazilian instant coffee”. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 23. 296-299. 2003.
[20]  Andrade, A.P.S., Melo, P.G., Aquino, F.J.T., Morais, S.A.L., Chang, R. Santos, D.Q. and Terrone, M.G.H. Avaliação do potencial alelopático e efeitos fitoquímicos obtidos da casca de café (Coffea arabica). In: Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de Química, vol 32, 1 CD-ROM, Sociedade brasileira de Química, Fortaleza. 2009.
[21]  Souza, R.M.N., Canuto, G.A.B., Dias, R.C.E. and Benassi, M.T. “Teores de compostos bioativos em cafés torrados e moídos comerciais”. Química Nova, 33. 885-890. 2010.
[22]  Budryn, G., Nebesny, E., Podsedek, A., Zyzelewick, D., Materska, M., Jankowski, S. and JANDA, B. “Effect of diffent extraction methods on the recovery of chlorogenic acids, caffeine and Maillard reaction products in coffee beans”. Eur Food Res Technol, 228. 913-922. 2009.
[23]  Chu, Y.F., Brown, P.H., Lyle, B.J., Chen, Y.M., Black, R.M., Williams, C.E., LIN, Y.C., Hsu, C.W. and Cheng, I.H. “Roasted coffees high in lipophilic antioxidants and chlorogenic acid lactones are more neuroprotective than green coffees”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57. 9801-9808. 2009.
[24]  Natella, F., Nardini, M., Belelli, F. and Scaccini, C. “Coffee drinking induces incorporation of phenolic acids into LDL and increases the resistance of LDL to ex vivo oxidation in humans”. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86. 604-609. 2007.
[25]  Zhao, Z., Shin, H.S., Satsu, H., Totsuka, M. and Shimizu, M. “5-caffeoylquinic acid and caffeic acid down-regulate the oxidative stress- and TNF-alpha-induced secretion of interleukin-8 from caco-2 cells”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,56. 3863-3868. 2008.
[26]  Baeza, G., Amigo-Benavent, M., Sarriá, B., Goya, L., Mateos, R. and Bravo, L. “Green coffee hydroxycinnamic acids but not caffeine protect human HepG2 cells against oxidative stress”. Food Research International, 62. 1038-1046. 2014.
[27]  Monteiro, M. C. and Trugo, L. C.”Determinação de compostos bioativos em amostras comerciais de café torrado”. Química Nova, 28. 637-641. 2005.
[28]  Brezová, V., Slebodová, A. and Stasko. “Coffee as a source of antioxidants: an EPR study”. Food Chemistry, 114. 859-868. 2009.
[29]  Alves, R.C., Costa, A.S.G., Jerez, M., Casal, S., Sineiro, J., Nunez, M.J. and Oliveira, B. “Antiradical activity, phenolics profile, and hydroxymethylfurfural in espresso coffee: influence of technological factors”. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 58. 12221-12229. 2010.
[30]  Clifford, M.N. and Ramirez Martinez, J.R. 1991. “Phenols and caffeine in wet-processed coffee beans and coffee pulp”. Food Chemistry, 40. 35-42. 1991.
[31]  Toci, A., Farah, A. and Trugo, L.C. “Effect of decaffeination using dichloromethane on the chemical composition of arabica and robusta raw and roasted coffees”. Quimica Nova, 29. 965-971. 2006.
[32]  Vignolli, J. A. “Antioxidant activity, polyphenols, caffeine and melanoidins in soluble coffee: the influence of processing conditions and raw material”. Food Chemistry, 124 (3). 863-868. Feb. 2011.
[33]  Liu, Y.Z. and Kitts, D.D. “Confirmation that the Maillard reaction is the principle contributor to the antioxidant capacity of coffee brews”. Food Research International, 44. 2418-2424. 2011.
[34]  Santos, M.H., Batista, B.L., Duarte, S.M.S. and Lemos, B. “Influence of processing and roasting on the antioxidant activity of cofee (Coffea arabica)”. Química Nova, 30. 604-610. 2007.
[35]  Duarte, S.M.D., De Abreu, C.M.P., De Menezes, H.C., Paula, F.B.D., Pereira, R. and Gouvea, C. “Peeled coffee brew effect in the antioxidant activity hematological and biochemical parameters in rats”. Ciencia E Tecnologia De Alimentos, 29. 703-708. 2009.
[36]  Kim, J.S. and Lee, Y.S. “Antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products derived from aqueous glucose/glycine, diglycine, and triglycine model systems as a function of heating time”. Food Chemistry, 116. 227-232. 2009.