Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2019, 7(2), 148-154
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-7-2-7
Open AccessArticle

Quality of Miracle Berry Wine as Influenced by pH and Inoculum Levels

Jacob K. Agbenorhevi1, , Francis Alemawor1, Felix N. Engmann2 and Stephen K. Aduboffour1

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

2School of Applied Sciences and Technology, Kumasi Technical University, Kumasi, Ghana

Pub. Date: February 21, 2019

Cite this paper:
Jacob K. Agbenorhevi, Francis Alemawor, Felix N. Engmann and Stephen K. Aduboffour. Quality of Miracle Berry Wine as Influenced by pH and Inoculum Levels. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2019; 7(2):148-154. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-7-2-7

Abstract

Synsepalum dulificum (also known as miracle berry) fruit is rich in nutrients, flavour and antioxidant compounds. However, the fruit is underutilized in the sub region and susceptible to post harvest losses. In this study, miracle berry wine was produced and the effects of varying pH and inocula levels during fermentation (at room temperature for 7 days) on the wine parameters (soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, acid taste index, total phenols and antioxidant activity) were investigated. During fermentation, changes in ˚brix and pH were also monitored. Total soluble solids varied between 4.8-20°Brix while total phenols and antioxidant activity (% DPPH inhibition) ranged 300-580 mg GAE/L and 52-86 %, respectively. There was a decrease in ˚Brix, pH, phenolic content and antioxidant activity for all samples fermented at varying pH after fermentation. There was, however, an increase in titratable acidity (7-14 g/L tartaric acid) and acid taste index after fermentation. Wine samples produced at pH of 3.8, 4.6 and 5.8 using 1% inoculum produced 13%, 10% and 10% (v/v) alcohol, respectively. With respect to varying inocula, there was a decrease in ˚Brix, pH, phenolic content and antioxidant activity for wine samples produced at pH of 4.6 and inocula of 1% and 2%, respectively, but increased in titratable acidity and acid taste index after fermentation. At the end of the fermentation process, wine sample with pH 4.6 and inocula of 1% and 2% had alcohol content of 10% and 12% (v/v), respectively. The study revealed that it is possible to produce red wine from miracle berry rich in antioxidant with possible health imparting benefits. Again, varying the pH and inoculum levels can affect the quality of the wine produced.

Keywords:
Synsepalum dulificum fermentation red wine polyphenols antioxidant activity

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Biasi, F., Deinana, M., Guina, T., Gamba, P., Leonarduzzi, G. and Poli, G. (2014). Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis. Redox biology, 2, pp.795-802.
 
[2]  Draijer, R. et al., (2015). Consumption of a polyphenol-rich grape-wine extract lowers ambulatory blood pressure in mildly hypertensive subjects. Nutrients, 7(5): 3138-53.
 
[3]  Iriti, M. & Faoro, F. (2009). Bioactivity of grape chemicals for human health. Natural product communications, 4(5): 611-34.
 
[4]  Kaur, M., Agarwal, C. & Agarwal, R., (2009). Anticancer and cancer chemopreventive potential of grape seed extract and other grape-based products. The Journal of nutrition, 139(9): 1806S-12S.
 
[5]  Nassiri-Asl, M. & Hosseinzadeh, H., (2009). Review of the pharmacological effects of Vitis vinifera (Grape) and its bioactive compounds. Phytotherapy research: PTR, 23(9):1197-204.
 
[6]  Pérez-Jiménez, J. & Saura-Calixto, F. (2008). Grape products and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Nutrition research reviews, 21(2): 158-73.
 
[7]  Wu, C.D., (2009). Grape products and oral health. The Journal of nutrition, 139(9), p.1818S-23S. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2728698&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract [Accessed July 5, 2015].
 
[8]  Yadav, M. et al., (2009). Biological and medicinal properties of grapes and their bioactive constituents: an update. Journal of medicinal food, 12(3): 473-84.
 
[9]  Aviram, M. & Fuhrman, B., (2002). Wine flavonoids protect against LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 957: 146-61.
 
[10]  Castilla, P., Dávalos, A., Teruel, J.L., Cerrato, F., Fernández-Lucas, M., Merino, J.L., Sánchez-Martín, C.C., Ortuño, J. and Lasunción, M.A. (2008). Comparative effects of dietary supplementation with red grape juice and vitamin E on production of superoxide by circulating neutrophil NADPH oxidase in hemodialysis patients. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 87(4): 1053-1061.
 
[11]  Guerrero, R.F. et al. (2009). Wine, resveratrol and health: a review. Natural product communications, 4(5): 635-58.
 
[12]  Ko, S.-H. et al., (2005). Comparison of the Antioxidant Activities of Nine Different Fruits in Human Plasma. Journal of Medicinal Food, 8(1), pp.41-46.
 
[13]  Njajou, O.T. et al., (2009). Association between oxidized LDL, obesity and type 2 diabetes in a population-based cohort, the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews, 25(8), pp.733-9.
 
[14]  Ursini, F. & Sevanian, A., 2002. Wine polyphenols and optimal nutrition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 957: 200-209.
 
[15]  Young, J.F. et al. (2000). The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status. The British journal of nutrition, 84(4): 505-13.
 
[16]  Zern, T.L. et al., 2005. Grape polyphenols exert a cardioprotective effect in pre- and postmenopausal women by lowering plasma lipids and reducing oxidative stress. The Journal of nutrition, 135(8): 1911-917.
 
[17]  Akubor, P.I., 1996. The suitability of African bush mango juice for wine production. Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands), 49(3), 213-219.
 
[18]  Sevda, S.B., Rodrigues, L. & Joshi, C. (2011). Influence of heat shock on yeast cell and its effect on glycerol production in guava wine production. Journal of Biochemical Technology, 31(1): 230-232.
 
[19]  Chowdhury, P. R.C.R., 2007. Fermentation of Jamun (Syzgium cumini L.) Fruits to Form Red Wine. ASEAN Food Journal, 14(1), pp.15-23.
 
[20]  Singh, R.S. & Kaur, P. (2009). Evaluation of litchi juice concentrate for the production of wine Research Paper. Natural Product Radiance, 8(4), pp.386–391.
 
[21]  Soni, S.K., Bansal, N. & Soni, R. (2009). Standardization of conditions for fermentation and maturation of wine from Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) Research Paper. Natural Product Radiance, 8(4): 436-444.
 
[22]  Mathapati, P.R., Ghasghase, N. V & Kulkarni, M.K., (2010). Study of saccharomyces cerevisiae 3282 for the production of toamato wine. Int. J. Chem. Sci. Appl, 1: 5-15.
 
[23]  Owusu, J. et al., (2014). Influence of two inocula levels of Saccharomyces bayanus, BV 818 on fermentation and physico-chemical properties of fermented tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill .) juice. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(33).
 
[24]  Chilaka, C. A., Uchechukwu, N., Obidiegwu, J. E., & Akpor, O. B. (2010). Evaluation of the efficiency of yeast isolates from palm wine in diverse fruit wine production. African Journal of Food Science, 4(12), 764-774.
 
[25]  Du, L. et al., (2014). Antioxidant-rich phytochemicals in miracle berry (Synsepalum dulcificum) and antioxidant activity of its extracts. Food chemistry, 153: 279–84.
 
[26]  Nkwocha, C. (2014). Proximate and micronutrient analyses of Synsepalum dulcificum. Scientific Research Journal, 2(1), pp. 71-74.
 
[27]  Alobo, A.P. & Offonry, S.U., 2009. Characteristics of Coloured Wine Produced from Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Calyx Extract. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 115(2): 91-94.
 
[28]  Okoro, C. (2007). Production of red wine from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) using palm-wine yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Nigerian Food Journal, 25(2).
 
[29]  Jackson, R.S., (2008). Wine Science, Fourth Edition: Principles and Applications (Food Science and Technology): Ronald S. Jackson: 9780123814685: A
 
[30]  Ribéreau-Gayon, P. et al., (2006). Handbook of Enology, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
[31]  Sonnleitner, B., 2000. Bioanalysis and Biosensors for Bioprocess Monitoring B. Sonnleitner, ed., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
 
[32]  Reddy, L.., Reddy, O. & Joshi, V.K. (2009). Production, optimization and characterization of wine from mango (Mangifera indica Linn.). Natural Product Radiance, 426–435.
 
[33]  Sen, R. & Swaminathan, T. (2004). Response surface modeling and optimization to elucidate and analyze the effects of inoculum age and size on surfactin production. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 21(2): 141-148.
 
[34]  AOAC, 1990. AOAC: Official Methods of Analysis (Volume 1) - aoac.methods.1.1990.pdf. Available at: https://law.resource.org/pub/us/cfr/ibr/002/aoac.methods.1.1990.pdf [Accessed December 20, 2015].
 
[35]  Sadler, G.D. & Murphy, P.A. (2010). Food Analysis S. S. Nielsen, ed., Boston, MA: Springer US.
 
[36]  IUPAC, (1968). A standardization of methods for determination of the alcohol content of beverages and distilled potable spirits. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 17(2): 273-312.
 
[37]  Boakye, A.A. et al., (2015). Antioxidant activity, total phenols and phytochemical constituents of four underutilised tropical fruits. 22(1): 262-268.
 
[38]  Liu, Q. & Yao, H., (2007). Antioxidant activities of barley seeds extracts. Food Chemistry, 102(3):732-737.
 
[39]  Olaitan, J. (2015). Proximate and Mineral Composition of Synsepalum Dulcificum Seed. Scientific Research Journal (SCIRJ), III(Iii):1-5.
 
[40]  Lee, D. et al., (2008). Changes of Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activities of Red Wines during Fermentation and Post-fermentation. Kor. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol, 36(1), pp.67-71.
 
[41]  Abdrabba, S. & Hussein, S., 2015. Chemical composition of pulp, seed and peel of red grape from libya. Global Journal of Scientific Researches, 3(2), pp.6-11.
 
[42]  Duarte, W.F. et al. (2010). Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) wine: Yeast selection, sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis of volatile and other compounds. Food Research International, 43(9): 2303-2314.
 
[43]  Pino, J.A. & Queris, O. (2010). Analysis of volatile compounds of pineapple wine using solid-phase microextraction techniques. Food Chemistry, 122(4): 1241-1246.
 
[44]  Fugelsang, K. & Edwards, C. (2007). Wine Microbiology: Practical Applications and Procedures: 9780387333410: Available at: http://www.amazon.com/Wine-Microbiology-Practical-Applications-Procedures/dp/038733341X [Accessed June 23, 2018].
 
[45]  Carrascosa, A. V. et al., 2011. Molecular Wine Microbiology, Elsevier. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123750211100013 [Accessed June 23, 2015].
 
[46]  Ough, C.S. & Amerine, M.A. (1988). Wiley: Methods Analysis of Musts and Wines. John Wiley and Son New York. Available at: http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471627577.html
 
[47]  Asli, M.S., 2010. A study on some efficient parameters in batch fermentation of ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevesiae SC1 extracted from fermented siahe sardasht pomace. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(20): 2906-2912.
 
[48]  Kunyanga, C. et al., (2009). Microbiological and acidity changes during the traditional production of Kirario: an indigenous kenyan fermented porridge produced from green maize and millet.
 
[49]  Reddy, L.V.A., Sudheer Kumar, Y. & Reddy, O.V.S. (2010). Analysis of volatile aroma constituents of wine produced from Indian mango (Mangifera indica L.) by GC-MS. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 50(2): 183-191.
 
[50]  Towantakavanit, K., Park, Y. & Gorinstein, S. (2011). Bioactivity of wine prepared from ripened and over-ripened kiwifruit. Open Life Sciences, 6(2).
 
[51]  Towantakavanit, K., Park, Y.S. & Gorinstein, S. (2011). Quality properties of wine from Korean kiwifruit new cultivars. Food Research International, 44(5), pp.1364-1372.
 
[52]  Zamora, F., 2009. Biochemistry of Alcoholic Fermentation. In: Moreno, M.V.A. and Polo, M.C., Eds., Wine Chemistry and Biochemistry, Springer Science, New York, 3-26. - Open Access Library. In: Moreno, M.V.A. and Polo, M.C., Eds., Wine Chemistry and Biochemistry, Springer Science, New York.
 
[53]  Satora, P. et al. (2008). The profile of volatile compounds and polyphenols in wines produced from dessert varieties of apples. Food Chemistry, 111(2): 513-519.
 
[54]  Jung, J. et al., (2009). Antioxidant properties of Korean black raspberry wines and their apoptotic effects on cancer cells. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89(6): 970-977.
 
[55]  Di Majo, D. et al., (2008). The antioxidant capacity of red wine in relationship with its polyphenolic constituents. Food Chemistry, 111(1):45-49.
 
[56]  Cimino, F., Sulfaro, V., Trombetta, D., Saija, A. and Tomaino, A. (2007). Radical-scavenging capacity of several Italian red wines. Food Chemistry, 103(1):75-81.
 
[57]  Rupasinghe, H.P.V. & Clegg, S., (2007). Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, mineral elements, and histamine concentrations in wines of different fruit sources. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20(2), pp. 133-137.
 
[58]  Tsao, R. (2010). Chemistry and biochemistry of dietary polyphenols. Nutrients, 2(12), pp. 1231-1246.
 
[59]  Librán, M. C. et al., (2013). Polyphenol extraction from grape wastes: Solvent and pH effect. Agricultural Sciences, 04(09): 56-62.
 
[60]  Nogueira, A. et al. (2008). Effect of alcoholic fermentation in the content of phenolic compounds in cider processing. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 51(5): 1025-1032.
 
[61]  Inglett, G.E. & Chen, D., 2011. Contents of phenolics and flavonoids and antioxidant activities in skin, pulp, and seeds of miracle fruit. Journal of food science, 76(3), pp. C479-82.