American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
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American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015, 3(3), 74-81
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-3-3-4
Open AccessArticle

Constraints and Compliances of Traceability in Low Grown Orthodox Black Tea Manufacturing Process

ChandanaVindika Kumara Lokunarangodage1, , Indira Wickramasinghe1 and Kamburawala Kankanamge Don Somathilaka Ranaweera1

1Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka

Pub. Date: July 05, 2015

Cite this paper:
ChandanaVindika Kumara Lokunarangodage, Indira Wickramasinghe and Kamburawala Kankanamge Don Somathilaka Ranaweera. Constraints and Compliances of Traceability in Low Grown Orthodox Black Tea Manufacturing Process. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015; 3(3):74-81. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-3-4


Traceability practices and their compliances in low grown orthodox black tea manufacturing process were examined, while proposing possible solutions for identified major drawbacks. The physical traceability in supply chain was considered one step forward and one step backward from the point of manufacturing, starting from auction/buyer back to supplier. Randomized stratified sampling was used. The traceability was evaluated using a checklist, end product sampling, open ended interviews, observations and internal document studies. The orthodox process was more complicated unlike other production processes due to the different separation techniques employed for grading and variety of grades produced because the sifting/grading was the key to number of different tea varieties. Major traceability issues were observed in leaf collection and grading operations due to complexity of separation through Myddleton, Chota, Michie and Winnower, which reduced the specific amounts produced, where bulking and blending process further extended complexity, while increasing the mixing of different made tea together with increased number of suppliers. Considering 1st, 2nd, 3rd dhool and big bulk with given separation techniques during grading; a single tea leaf could pass many paths before it end up in a specific product due to weight, size and shape of the leaf of a shoot based on the way it was rolled in orthodox rollers, where traceability up to tea bush, grading, blending and traceability of sample back to supplier was not fully complying. Nevertheless, supplier records, traceability after packing, traceability at dispatch and after dispatch were in full compliance, and other factors had varying degree of traceability compliances which make the compliances unachievable. Alternatively, if made tea is considered as bulk material, use of emerging technologies like Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags or/and DNA barcoding may be potential tools in rectifying such drawbacks and further research is needed to assess their efficacy in the field.

orthodox black tea manufacturing traceability compliance Myddleton shifter supplier grading dhool

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