American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajfst Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2022, 10(4), 191-199
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-10-4-6
Open AccessArticle

Production and Physicochemical Characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Nectar Lyophilisate for a Refreshing Drink Production

Tapsoba François1, , Bationo Frédéric1, 2, Dawendé/Compaoré Sidbewendé Clarisse1, 2, Pacmogda Emmanuel1, Zongo Oumarou1, 3, Cisse Hama1, Zongo Cheikna1 and Savadogo Aly1

1Laboratoire de Biochimie et Immunologie Appliquées (LaBIA), Université Joseph KI-ZERBO, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

2Institut de Recherche en Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie (IRSAT)/CNRST, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

3Université Thomas Sankara, 12 BP 417, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Pub. Date: November 08, 2022

Cite this paper:
Tapsoba François, Bationo Frédéric, Dawendé/Compaoré Sidbewendé Clarisse, Pacmogda Emmanuel, Zongo Oumarou, Cisse Hama, Zongo Cheikna and Savadogo Aly. Production and Physicochemical Characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Nectar Lyophilisate for a Refreshing Drink Production. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2022; 10(4):191-199. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-10-4-6

Abstract

Balanites aegyptiaca is a forest species with high nutritional and medicinal value. Its transformation, which is always artisanal, contributes little to the exploitation of its potential. Thus, the present study aimed to valorize B. aegyptiaca by developing a freeze-drying technology for its nectar for better preservation. In his study, a survey was carried out to determine the food and medicinal use of the fruit of B. aegyptiaca, a freeze-drying technology was developed for B. aegyptiaca nectar production. The pulp and the lyophilisate produced were characterized using standard physicochemical analysis methods and sensory analysis. The survey showed that B. aegyptiaca was used for the treatment of constipation (60% of respondents), high blood pressure (45% of respondents), ulcers (31% of respondents), diabetes (7% of respondents) and diarrhea (4% of respondents). The physicochemical analysis revealed average contents of 0.52 ± 0.01% fat, 5.83± 0.05% protein, 73.1 ± 0.01% carbohydrates, and 320.48 ± 0.27 Kcal/100g of energy value for pulps. As for the lyophilisates, the average contents were 0.49% ± 0.01% fat, 4.44 ± 0.013% protein, 76.56 ± 0.54% carbohydrates and 328.40 ± 2.1 Kcal /100g of energy value. Potassium was the mineral with the highest content with respectively average values of 1882.50±0.3 mg/100 g (pulp) and 2051±0.6 mg/100 g (lyophilisate). The contents of phenolic compounds were 20 ± 0.17 mg EAG/100 mg (pulp) and 20.81 ± 0.22 mg EAG/100 mg (lyophilisate). The flavonoid contents were 8.49mgEQ/100 mg (pulp) and 8.07±0.37mg EQ/100 mg (lyophilisate). Nectar reconstituted from lyophilisates were highly appreciated by tasters with sensory characteristics close to those of pulp nectar.

Keywords:
Balanites aegyptiaca lyophilisate minerals phenolic compounds physico-chemical characteristics sensory characteristics

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Vodouhê F.G., Coulibaly O., Greene C., Sinsin B. (2009) Estimating the local value of non-timber forest products to Pendjari Biosphere Reserve dwellers in Benin. Econ. Bot., 63, 397-412.
 
[2]  El Mansouri L., Ennabili A., Bousta D. (2011) Socioeconomic interest and valorization of medicinal plants from the Rissani oasis (SE of Morocco). Bowl. Latinoam. Caribbean Plant. Med. Flavor, 10, 30-45.
 
[3]  DGESS, 2017. Annuaire des statistiques de l’environnement 2016. Burkina Faso : DGESS (Direction Générale des Études et des Statistiques Sectorielles), MEEVCC (Ministère de 20 l’Environnement, de l’Économie Verte et du Changement Climatique) et PASF (Programme d’Appui au Secteur Forestier).
 
[4]  DGEEVCC, 2018. Stratégie nationale de développement de l’accès des produits forestiers non ligneux (PFNL) aux marchés. Burkina Faso: DGEEVCC (Direction Générale de l’Environnement de l’Économie Verte et du Changement Climatique), MEEVCC (Ministère de l’Environnement, de l’Économie Verte et du Changement Climatique).
 
[5]  APFNL (2011). National strategy for the development and promotion of non-timber forest products. Burkina Faso: APFNL (Non-Timber Forest Products Agency), MEDD (Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development).
 
[6]  Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K., & Zizka, G. (2012). plants vessels from Burkina Faso. Boissiera. ISSN: 0373-2975 65 1-391.
 
[7]  Tahir, A. E., Ibrahim, A. M., Satti, G. M., Theander, T. G., Kharazmi, A., & Khalid, S. A. (1998). The potential antileishmanial activity of some Sudanese medicinal plants. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 12(8), 576-579.
 
[8]  Chapagain B. P., Yehoshua Y., Wiesman Z. (2009) Desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca) as an and lands sustainable bioresource for biodiesel. Bioresource Technology, 100 (3): 1221-1226
 
[9]  Mohamed, A. M., Wolf, W., & Spiess, W. E. L. (2002). Physical, morphological and chemical characteristics, oil recovery and fatty acid composition of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernels. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 57(2), 179-189.
 
[10]  NRC (2008) Lost crops of Africa Volume III: Fruits: Development, Security and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs. The National Academies Press. Washington, 351 pp.
 
[11]  Munier P. (1973). Le palmier dattier. Ed. Maisonneuve, Paris 221p.
 
[12]  AFNOR (1986). Recueil de normes francaises. Produits dérivés des fruits et légumes, jus de fruits. Ed. AFNOR, France tour Europe, Paris, France, 343p
 
[13]  Norme AFNOR de janvier 2010 NF EN ISO 712 (V03-707) Céréales et produits céréaliers - détermination de la teneur en eau (méthode de référence pratique).
 
[14]  Norme Internationale ISO 2171 (2007). Céréales, légumineuses et produits dérivés-Dosage du taux de cendres par incinération. 4ed. 11 p.
 
[15]  AOAC (Association of Official Agricultural Chemists) (1995). Official Methods of Analysis, 16th ed. Arlington VA.
 
[16]  Dubois, M., Gilles, K. A., Hamilton, J. K., Rebers, P. T., & Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical chemistry, 28(3), 350-356.
 
[17]  Bradford, M. (1976) A Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Quantitation of Microgram Quantities of Protein Utilizing the Principle of Protein-Dye Binding. In Analytical Biochemistry 72 (1-2).
 
[18]  AOAC (Association of Official Agricultural Chemists) (2005). Official Method 968 08. Minerals in Animal Feed and Pet Food-Atomic absorption spectrophotometric method, 1 p.
 
[19]  Singleton, VL, Orthofer, R., Lamuela- Raventós , RM (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants through folin-ciocalteu reagent. In Methods in Enzymology Vol. 299. 152-178.
 
[20]  Arvouet-Grand, A., Vennat, B., Pourrat, A., & Legret, P. (1994). Standardization of propolis extract and identification of principal constituents. Journal de pharmacie de Belgique, 49(6), 462-468.
 
[21]  Marin M., Rene F. (2000) Lyophilisation. Tech. Ing. Agroalimentaire.2. F3240-1.
 
[22]  Kuu, WY, McShane, J. and Wong, J., (1995) Determination of Mass Transfer Coefficient During Freeze Drying Using Modeling and Parameter Estimation Techniques. International Journal of Pharmaceuticals. 124, 241-252
 
[23]  Barrett A.H., Cardello A.V., Prakash A., Mair L., Taub TA. et Lesher L.L., (1997) Optimization of dehydrated egg quality by microwave assisted freeze-drying and hydrocolloid incorporation. Journal of food processing and preservation, v. 21 (3), p.225-244.
 
[24]  Litvin, S., Mannheim, C. H., & Miltz, J. (1998). Dehydration of carrots by a combination of freeze drying, microwave heating and air or vacuum drying. Journal of food engineering, 36(1), 103-111.
 
[25]  Abdelaziz SM, Lenine MMF, Tfeil OH, Filali- Maltouf A., Boukhary S. MOA (2020) Phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and ethnobotanical uses of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. Fruits from the arid zone of Mauritania, North West Africa Jounal Plants, 9, 401, 10.3390.
 
[26]  Askar A., EL-samahy, S.K. et ABD EL-Salem N.A. (1992). Production of instant guava drii powder. Confructa-Studien 36(5-6).
 
[27]  Sagna M. B, Diallo A., Sarr, Ndiaye O., Goffner D., Guisse A. (2014) Biochemical composition and nutritional value of fruit pulps of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del from northern Ferlo in Senegal. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2014, 13, 336-342.
 
[28]  Soloviev P., Niang T. D, Gaye A., Totte A. (2004) Variability of the physic-chemical characteristics of the fruits of three ligneous harvested species, harvested in Senegal: Adansonia digitata, Balanites aegyptiaca and Tamarindus indicate. Fruit, 59: 109-119.
 
[29]  Chopda, C. A., & Barrett, D. M. (2001). Optimization of guava juice and powder production. Journal of Food processing and Preservation, 25(6), 411-430.
 
[30]  Admassu M., Bekele A., Kim JC (2013) Nutritional composition of fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca (desert date) and Hyphaene thebaica eaten by hamadryas baboons in Awash National Park, Ethiopia. J. Nutr. School. Res. Food, 1, 198-206. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 11(52), 11535-11542.
 
[31]  Parkouda C., Diawara B., Ganou L., Lamioen N. (2007), « Potentialités nutritionnelles des produits de 16 espèces fruitières locales au Burkina - Faso» Janvier-juin 2007, Science et technique, Sciences appliquées et Technologies p40.
 
[32]  Cissé I. (2012) Characterization of the biochemical and nutritional properties of baobab pulp from endemic species of Madagascar and continental Africa with a view to their development. Thesis report, Process Engineering, Montpellier SUPAGRO, 167.
 
[33]  FAO/ WHO, 2002. Chapter 6 Vitamin C, In: human vitamin and mineral requirements. Agriculture and consumer protection, Rome, 73-87.
 
[34]  He J. Whelton P. K (1997). Epidémiologie et prévention de l'hypertension. Méd. Clin. Amérique du Nord. 81: 1077-1097.
 
[35]  Pamplona-Roger G.D. (2013). Guide des aliments et de leur pouvoir curatif: Traité de bromatologie et diétothérapie. – Première partie: La science des aliments. – Huitième édition en français de l’édition originale en espagnole. – E-28770 Colmenar Viejo, Madrid, Espagne: Editorial Safeliz, S. L. – Volume 1, p. 348-361: 382-411.
 
[36]  Achaglinkame MA, Aderibigbe, RO, Hensel, O., Sturm, B.; Korese K. (2019) Nutritional characteristics of four underutilized wild fruits of dietary interest in Ghana. Foods, 8.
 
[37]  Deprez, S., Mila, I., Huneau, J. F., Tome, D., & Scalbert, A. (2001). Transport of proanthocyanidin dimer, trimer, and polymer across monolayers of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Antioxidants and redox signaling, 3(6), 957-967.
 
[38]  Besco, E., Braccioli, E., Vertuani, S., Ziosi, P., Brazzo, F., Bruni, R., ... & Manfredini, S. (2007). The use of photochemiluminescence for the measurement of the integral antioxidant capacity of baobab products. Food chemistry, 102(4), 1352-1356.
 
[39]  Nour AAM, Ahmed AR, Abdel -Gayoum A. A. (1985). A chemical study of Balanites aegyptiaca LJ Sei . Food Agric. 36:1254-1258
 
[40]  Danthu, P., Soloviev, P., Totte, A., Tine, E., Ayessou, N., Gaye, A., Niang, DT, Seck , M., Fall, M., (2002). Comparative physico-chemical and organoleptic characteristics of wild jujubes and fruits of the Gola variety introduced in Senegal. Fruit, CIRAD/EDP Sciences 57, 173-182.
 
[41]  Atawodi SE, Atawodi JC, Pfundstein B, Spiegelhelder B, Bartsch H, Dwen R (2011). Evaluation of polyphenolic components and in vitro antioxidant properties of Syzygium aromaticum (L). Joyful and perry. EJEA Ch, 10(3), 1970-8.
 
[42]  Ozcan, T., Akpinar-Bayizit, A., Yilmaz-Ersan, L., & Delikanli, B. (2014). Phenolics in human health. International Journal of chemical engineering and applications, 5(5), 393.
 
[43]  Abdallah, E., Hsouna, A. B., Al-Khalifa K. S. (2012) Enquête antimicrobienne, antioxydante et phytochimique sur les fruits comestibles de Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. du Soudan. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11, 11535-11542.
 
[44]  Abdou BA, (2009) Contribution to the study of the development of a functional food based on spices from Cameroon: physico-chemical and functional characterization. National Polytechnic Institute of Lorraine, University of Ngaoundere, Ensai, 228 p.
 
[45]  Mhya, DH, Amigo, KM, Umar, IA, Alegbejo, JO (2016). Evaluation of hypoglycemic potential of extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca parts. Int. J. Innov. Adv. Study, 3, 135-138.
 
[46]  Chothani, D. L., & Vaghasiya, H. U. (2011). A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity. Pharmacognosy reviews, 5(9), 55.
 
[47]  Cheftel JC, Cheftel H, Besancon P. (1983). Introduction to Biochemistry and Food Technology. Technical Edition and Documentation, Lavoisier: Paris; 1. 420.