American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2014, 2(5), 77-81DOI:
Abstract: Lopinavir/ritonavir and sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim have been individually associated with renal adverse events which could be characterized by electrolyte imbalance. The concurrent use of these drugs in the management of HIV and co infections may impair renal function; therefore this work evaluates the renal effect of the co administration of these drugs in rats. Seventy five (75) animals which were divided into five (5) groups were used in this study. Group A which served as control contained fifteen (15) animals which were treated with 1% ethanol orally. Group B-E which contained fifteen (15) animals each was further subdivided into three (3) subgroups of five (5) animals each. Animals in these groups were treated with oral doses of SMX/TMP (11.2/2.3mg/kg), LPV/r (11.4/2.9mg/kg) and combined doses of SMX/TMP + LPV/r for 2-8 weeks respectively. Serum levels of potassium, sodium and chloride were evaluated. Kidney tissues were evaluated for catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPX) and histopathological changes. Results showed that treatment with LPV/r, SMX/TMP and co administered SMX/TMP + LPV/r had no significant time dependent effect on serum potassium, sodium and chloride. Treatment with SMX/TMP produced time dependent decrease in kidney CAT and GSHPX while LPV/r had no significant effect on kidney CAT and GSHPX. No significant synergistic effects were observed on CAT and GSHPX level when these agents were co administered. Single and combined doses of these agents did not produce morphological changes in the kidney of treated animals. Conclusion: Concurrent use of LPV/r and SMX/TMP in the management of a HIV and co infection may not have deleterious effect on serum electrolytes and kidney structure.