Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013, 1(3), 24-29
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-1-3-2
Open AccessArticle

The Response of Colonic Clostridium Cluster IV to Essential Oil and Aqueous Extract of Cinnamon Cassia in Rats

Cong Wang1, Shaoting Li1, Long Chen1, Xichun Peng1, and Xiyang Wu1

1Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China

Pub. Date: June 24, 2013

Cite this paper:
Cong Wang, Shaoting Li, Long Chen, Xichun Peng and Xiyang Wu. The Response of Colonic Clostridium Cluster IV to Essential Oil and Aqueous Extract of Cinnamon Cassia in Rats. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013; 1(3):24-29. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-1-3-2


The multiple pharmacological effects of Cinnamomum cassia (C. cassia) have been reported. The aim of this paper is to test the in vivo response of C. cassia derived materials on colonic Clostridium cluster IV that is supposed to relate the energy metabolism in body. The essential oil and aqueous extract of C. cassia were orally administered to 2 tested groups of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 30 days. After 30-days cultivation, the colonic contents of the rats were sampled to investigate the Clostridium cluster IV community structure through terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The results showed that the total peak areas of colonic Clostridium cluster IV, Shannon diversity index and evenness all decreased significantly in 2 tested groups compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Jaccard similarity index was under 50% in both tested groups. Putative species corresponding to diet-associated terminal restriction fragments (TRFs), 89, 172 and 177 bp, were identified through gene sequence as Acetanaerobacterium elongatum, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans, Anaerotruncus colihominis, Ethanoligenens harbinense, Clostridium cellulosi, Clostridium orbiscindens, Ruminococcus bromii and Papillibacter cinnamivorans. In conclusions, both essential oil and aqueous extract of C. cassia can alter the bacterial community structure and decline the diversity of colonic Clostridium cluster IV in SD rats. Those species of Clostridium cluster IV impacted during the experiment may play a role in the energy metabolism of host.

Cinnamomum cassia essential oil aqueous extracts Colon Clostridium cluster IV

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 3


[1]  Lee, J.S., Jeon, S.M., Park, E.M., Huh, T.L., Kwon, O.S., Lee, M.K. and Choi, M.S. “Cinnamate supplementation enhances hepatic lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense systems in high cholesterol-fed rats,” Journal of Medical Food, 6(3). 183-191. Fall. 2003.
[2]  Matan, N., Rimkeeree, H., Mawson, A.J., Chompreeda, P., Haruthaithanasan, V. and Parker, M. “Antimicrobial activity of cinnamon and clove oils under modified atmosphere conditions,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, 107(2). 180-185. Nov. 2006.
[3]  Youn, H.S., Lee, J.K., Choi, Y.J., Saitoh, S.I., Miyake, K., Hwang, D.H. and Lee, J.Y. “Cinnamaldehyde suppresses toll-like receptor 4 activation mediated through the inhibition of receptor oligomerization,” Biochemical Pharmacology, 75(2). 494-502. Jan. 2008.
[4]  Couturier, K., Batandier, C., Awada, M., Hininger-Favier, I., Canini, F., Anderson, R.A., Leverve, X. and Roussel, A.M. “Cinnamon improves insulin sensitivity and alters the body composition in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 501(1). 158-161. May. 2010.
[5]  Kwon, H.K., Hwang, J.S., So, J.S., Lee, C.G., Sahoo, A., Ryu, J.H., Jeon, W.K., Ko, B.S., Im, C.R., Lee, S.H., Park, Z.Y. and Im, S.H. “Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFκB and AP1,” BMC Cancer, 10. 392-401. Jul. 2010.
[6]  Ahn, Y.J., Kwon, J.H., Chae, S.H., Park, J.H. and Yoo, J.Y. “Growth-inhibitory responses of human intestinal bacteria to extracts of oriental medicinal plants,” Microbiol Ecology in Health and Disease, 7(5). 257-261. April. 1994.
[7]  Spencer, J.P.E. “Metabolism of tea flavonoids in the gastrointestinal tract,” The Journal of Nutrition, 133(10). 32111-32615. Oct. 2003.
[8]  Laparra, J.M. and Sanz, Y. “Interactions of gut microbiota with functional food components and nutraceuticals,” Pharmaceutical Research, 61(3). 219-25. Nov. 2010.
[9]  Ley, R.E., Turnbaugh, P.J., Klein, S., and Gorgon, J.I. “Human gut microbes associated with obesity,” Nature, 444(7122). 1022-1023. Dec. 2006.
[10]  Laparra, J.M., Lopez-Rubio, A., Lagaron, J.M. and Sanz, Y. “Dietary glycosaminoglycans interfere in bacterial adhesion and gliadin-induced pro-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 47(4). 458-464. Jul. 2010.
[11]  Ley, R.E., Lozupone, C.A., Hamady, M., Knight, R. and Gordon, J.I. “Worlds within worlds: Evolution of the vertebrate gut microbiota,” Nature Reviews of Microbiology, 6(10). 776-788. Oct. 2008.
[12]  Li, S., Wang, C., Peng, X. and Wu, Xi. “Effect of aqueous extracts and essential oil from Cinnamomum cassia on rat colonic mucosal morphology and Bacteriodales,” Journal of food and nutrition Research, 1(2): 7-12, Jun. 2013.
[13]  Marsh, T.L. “Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP): An emerging method for characterizing diversity among homologous populations of amplification products,” Current Opinion in Microbiology, 2(3). 323-7. Jul. 1999.
[14]  Zhang, S.Y., Wang, Q.F., Wan, R. and Xie, S.G. “Changes in bacterial community of anthracene bioremediation in municipal solid waste composting soil,” Journal of Zhejiang University Science B (Biomedical & Biotechnology), 12(9). 760-768. Sep. 2011.
[15]  Kaplan, L., Hullar, M.A., Sappelsa, L., Stahl, D.A., Hatcher, P. and Frazier, S. The role of organic matter in structuring microbial communities. London: IWA Publishing, 2005.
[16]  Ravussin, Y., Koren, O., Spor, A., LeDuc, C., Gutman, R., Stombaugh, J., Knight, R., Ley, R.E. and Leibel, R.L. “Responses of gut microbiota to diet composition and weight loss in lean and obese mice,” Obesity, 20(4).737-747. Apr. 2012.
[17]  Cupples, A.M. and Sims, G.K. “Identification of in situ 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading soil microorganisms using DNA-stable isotope probing,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 39(1): 232-238. Jan. 2007.
[18]  Luo, C.L., Xie, S.G., Sun, W.M., Li, X.D. and Cupples, A.M. “Identification of a novel toluene-degrading bacterium from the candidate phylum TM7, as determined by DNA stable isotope probing,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75(13). 4644-4647. Jul. 2009.
[19]  Berlanga, M., Paster, B.J. and Guerrero, R. “The taxophysiological paradox: Changes in the intestinal microbiota of the xylophagous cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus depending on the physiological state of the host,” International Microbiology, 12(4). 227-236. Dec. 2009.
[20]  Connolly, M.L., Lovegrove, J.A.and Tuohy, K.M. “In vitro evaluation of the microbiota modulation abilities of different sized whole oat grain flakes,” Anaerobe, 16(5). 483-488. Jul. 2010.
[21]  Koropatkin, N.M. and Smith, T.J. “SusG: A unique cell-membrane-associated alpha-amylase from a prominent human gut symbiont targets complex starch molecules,” Structure, 18(2). 200-215. Feb. 2010.
[22]  Salazar, N., Ruas-Madiedo, P., Kolida, S., Collins, M., Rastall, R., Gibson, G. and de Los Reyes-Gavilán, C.G. “Exopolysaccharides produced by Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis IPLA R1 modify the composition and metabolic activity of human faecal microbiota in pH-controlled batch cultures,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, 135(3). 260-267. 2009.
[23]  Samuel, B.S., Shaito, A., Motoike, T., Rey, F.E., Backhed F, Manchester, J.K., Hammer, R.E., Williams, S.C., Crowley, J., Yanagisawa, M. and Gordon, J.I. “Effects of the gut microbiota on host adiposity are modulated by the short-chain fatty-acid binding G protein-coupled receptor, Gpr41,” Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of United State America, 105(43). 16767-16772. Oct. 2008.
[24]  Sonnenburg, E.D., Zheng, H., Joglekar, P., Higginbottom, S.K., Firbank, S.J., Bolam, D.N., et al. Specificity of polysaccharide use in intestinal bacteroides species determines diet-induced microbiota alterations,” Cell, 141(7). 1241-1252. Jul. 2010.
[25]  Van den, A.P., Grootaert, C., Marzorati, M., Possemiers, S., Verstraete, W., Gerard, P., et al. Microbial community development in a dynamic gut model is reproducible, colon region specific, and selective for Bacteroidetes and Clostridium cluster IX,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(15). 5237-5246. Aug. 2010.
[26]  Zhang, H., DiBaise, J.K., Zuccolo, A., Kudrna, D., Braidotti, M., Yu, Y., Parameswaran, P., Crowell, M.D., Wing, R., Rittmann, B.E. and Krajmalnik-Brown, R. “Human gut microbiota in obesity and after gastric bypass,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of United State America, 106(7). 2365-2370. Feb. 2009.
[27]  Delgado, S., Suarez, A., Otero, L. and Mayo, B. “Variation of microbiological and biochemical parameters in the faeces of two healthy people over a 15 day period,” European Journal of Nutrition 43(6). 375-380. Dec. 2004.
[28]  Gibson, G.R., Beatty, E.R., Wang, X. and Cummings, J.H. “Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin,” Gastroenterology, 108(4). 975-982. Apr. 1995.
[29]  Tuohy, K.M., Kolida, S., Lustenberger, A.M. and Gibson, G.R. “The prebiotic effects of biscuits containing partially hydrolysed guar gum and fructooligosaccharides-a human volunteer study,” British Journal of Nutrition, 86(3): 341-348. Sep. 2001.
[30]  Bouhnik, Y., Raskine, L., Simoneau, G., Vicaut, E., Neut, C., Flourie, B., Brouns, F. and Bornet, F.R. “The capacity of nondigestible carbohydrates to stimulate fecal bifidobacteria in healthy humans: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-response relation study,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 80(6). 1658-1664. Dec. 2004.
[31]  Langlands, S.J., Hopkins, M.J., Coleman, N. and Cummings, J.H. “Prebiotic carbohydrates modify the mucosa associated microflora of the human large bowel,” Gut, 53(11). 1610-1616. Nov. 2004.
[32]  Smith, S.C., Choy, R., Johnson, S.K., Hall, R.S., Wildeboer-Veloo, A.C. and Welling, G.W. “Lupin kernel fiber consumption modifies fecal microbiota in healthy men as determined by rRNA gene fluorescent in situ hybridization,” European Journal of Nutrition, 45(6). 335-341. Sep. 2006.
[33]  Costabile, A., Klinder, A., Fava, F., Napolitano, A., Fogliano, V., Leonard, C., Gibson, G.R. and Tuohy, K.M. “Whole-grain wheat breakfast cereal has a prebiotic effect on the human gut microbiota: A double- blind, placebo controlled, crossover study,” British Journal of Nutrition, 99(1). 110-120. Jan. 2008.
[34]  Lee, H.C., Jenner, A.M., Low, C.S. and Lee, Y.K. “Effect of tea phenolics and their aromatic fecal bacterial metabolites on intestinal microbiota,” Research in Microbiology, 157(9). 876-884. Nov. 2006.
[35]  Bazzocco, S., Mattila, I., Guyot, S., Renard, C.M.G.C. and Aura, A.M. “Factors affecting the conversion of apple polyphenols to phenolic acids and fruit matrix to shortchain fatty acids by human faecal microbiota in vitro,” European Journal of Nutrition, 47(8). 442-452. Dec. 2008.
[36]  Spencer, J.P.E. “Metabolism of tea flavonoids in the gastrointestinal tract,” The Journal of Nutrition (Supplement), 133(10). 3255s-3261s. Oct. 2003.
[37]  Li, F., Hullar, M.A.J., Schwarz, Y. and Lampe, J.W. “Human gut bacterial communities are altered by addition of cruciferous vegetables to a controlled fruit-and vegetable-free diet,” The Journal of Nutrition, 139(9): 1685-1691. Sep. 2009.
[38]  Ley, R.E., Backhed, F., Turnbaugh, P., Lozupone, C.A., Knight, R.D. and Gordon, J.I. “Obesity alters gut microbial ecology,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United State America, 102(31): 11070-11075. Aug. 2005.
[39]  Rastmanesh, R. “High polyphenol, low probiotic diet for weight loss because of intestinal microbiota interaction,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, 189(1-2). 1-8. Jan. 2011.