International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014, 2(1), 19-27DOI:
Abstract: As Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) concept convenes strong interests among automakers, electric utility owners, and policy makers, it is critical to investigate the potential impacts of V2G on the electric distribution system. Such study, together with other benefits of V2G, may encourage utility support for V2G commercialization. This paper focuses on a pressing technical issue associated with the penetration of V2G into the electric distribution network- the energy loss in the feeders. Mathematical models are formulated to investigate how V2G reactive power injection and different load patterns can impact energy loss on a distribution system. It is shown that loss reduction can be greatly influenced by reactive loading factor, the pattern of loading, the amount of V2G reactive power injection, and the position of V2G parking lot on the feeder segment. Useful results are obtained, with a promise that more than 95% energy loss reduction (relative to energy loss in the system without V2G installed) is possible by optimally locating a V2G parking lot along the feeder. The results in this study may serve as a nomogram to determine energy loss at the planning stage of installing a V2G parking lot on a distribution feeder segment.