International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System
ISSN (Print): 2373-1273 ISSN (Online): 2373-1281 Website: Editor-in-chief: Dr. Pushpendra Singh, Dr. Rajkumar Rajasekaran
Open Access
Journal Browser
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014, 2(1), 19-27
DOI: 10.12691/iteces-2-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Impact of V2G on Distribution Feeder: An Energy Loss Reduction Approach

Uwakwe C. Chukwu1, and Satish M. Mahajan2

1Department of Industrial & Electrical Engineering Technology of South Carolina State University, U.S.A.

2Electrical and Computer engineering, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN, U.S.A.

Pub. Date: January 17, 2014

Cite this paper:
Uwakwe C. Chukwu and Satish M. Mahajan. Impact of V2G on Distribution Feeder: An Energy Loss Reduction Approach. International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System. 2014; 2(1):19-27. doi: 10.12691/iteces-2-1-4


As Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) concept convenes strong interests among automakers, electric utility owners, and policy makers, it is critical to investigate the potential impacts of V2G on the electric distribution system. Such study, together with other benefits of V2G, may encourage utility support for V2G commercialization. This paper focuses on a pressing technical issue associated with the penetration of V2G into the electric distribution network- the energy loss in the feeders. Mathematical models are formulated to investigate how V2G reactive power injection and different load patterns can impact energy loss on a distribution system. It is shown that loss reduction can be greatly influenced by reactive loading factor, the pattern of loading, the amount of V2G reactive power injection, and the position of V2G parking lot on the feeder segment. Useful results are obtained, with a promise that more than 95% energy loss reduction (relative to energy loss in the system without V2G installed) is possible by optimally locating a V2G parking lot along the feeder. The results in this study may serve as a nomogram to determine energy loss at the planning stage of installing a V2G parking lot on a distribution feeder segment.

distribution feeder line segment energy loss load pattern reactive current reactive power V2G

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 22


[1]  S. Deilami, A.s. Masoum, P.S. Moses, M.A.S. Masoum, “Real-Time Coordination of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging in Smart Grids to Minimize Power Losses and Improve Voltage Profile” IEEE Trans. on Smart Grid, Vol. 2, Iss.3, pp. 456-467, 2011.
[2]  N. Jelani, M. Molinas, “Loss minimization in AC distribution system with high share of power electronic loads providing ancillary reactive power”, IEEE Power Tech, Trondheim , pp. 1-6, 2011.
[3]  L. G. Meegahapola, S. R. Abbott, D. J. Morrow, T. Littler, D. Flynn, “Optimal allocation of distributed reactive power resources under network constraints for system loss minimization IEEE PES GM. pp. 1-7, 2011.
[4]  L. Ramesh, S.P. Chowdhury, S. Chowdhury, A.A. Natarajan, C. Gaunt, “Minimization of Power Loss in Distribution Networks by Different Techniques” Int. J. of Electrical &Electronic Eng. vol.3, (9), pp. 511-527, 2009.
[5]  K. V. S. Ramachandra Murthy and M. Ramalinga Raju, “Electrical Energy Loss in Rural Distribution Feeders-A Case Study” ARPN J. of Eng. and Applied Science, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 33-36, 2009.
[6]  [Online]. Available:
[7]  W. Kempton, S. Letendre, “Electric vehicles as a new source for electric utilities,” Transportation. Research Part D, vol. 2, (3), pp. 157-175, 1997.
[8]  W. Kempton and J. Tomic, “Vehicle-to-grid power fundamentals: Calculating Capacity and net revenue,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 268-279, 2005.
[9]  S. Letendre and W. Kempton. 2002. “The V2G Concept: A new Model for Power?” Public Utilities Fortnightly, pp. 17-26, 2002.
[10]  A.Y. Saber, G.K. Venayagamoorthy, “Optimization of vehicle-to-grid scheduling in constrained parking lots” Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 2009, pp 1-8.
[11]  J. Tomi´, W. Kempton, “Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support” Energy Policy, vol. 36, pp. 3578-3587, 2008.
[12]  T. Gonen, Electric Power Distributed System Engineering, 2nd printing Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987, pp 414-435.
[13]  M. C. Kisacikoglu, B. Ozpineci, L. M. Tolbert, “Examination of a PHEV bidirectional charger for V2G reactive power compensation.” in Proc. IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2010, Palm Springs, California, pp. 458-465.