Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(10), 771-780
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-5-10-8
Open AccessArticle

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Characteristics of Combination (Cassia fistula and Ocimum basilicum) Extract as Natural Preservative to Control & Prevent Food Contamination

Gamal M. Hamad1, 2, , Amira M.G. Darwish1, 2, Marwa M Abu-Serie3, 2 and Sobhy A. El Sohaimy1, 2

1Food Technology Department, Arid Lands Cultivation Research Institute (ALCRI)

2City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications (SRTA-CITY), New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt

3Medical Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI)

Pub. Date: October 11, 2017

Cite this paper:
Gamal M. Hamad, Amira M.G. Darwish, Marwa M Abu-Serie and Sobhy A. El Sohaimy. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Characteristics of Combination (Cassia fistula and Ocimum basilicum) Extract as Natural Preservative to Control & Prevent Food Contamination. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017; 5(10):771-780. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-10-8


Objectives: Cassia fistula and Ocimum basilicum which are assumed to contain the active components and which are renewable source in fighting infections of microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity, the antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory properties of Cassia fistula and Ocimum basilicum and their mix. Methods and Materials: Cassia fistula and Ocimum basilicum exhibited antimicrobial activity against all of the tested bacteria and yeasts except for Asperigillus spp. that showed high resistance. Results and Discussion: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for bacteria and yeast ranged from 3.1 to 6.2 mg/ mL. The antioxidant activity of the Cassia fistula and Ocimum basilicum was evaluated by using DPPH radical scavenging assay. In addition, the amount of total phenolic content (TPC) of Cassia fistula, Ocimum basilicum and their mix was 64.71, 96.42 and 113.07 mg/g, while total flavonoids content was 16.33, 32.66 and 79 mg/g respectively. Vanillin, quercetin and cinnamic acid marked the phenolic profile of the mix. Cytotoxicity results indicated high safety use of the two plants. Conclusion: Our data confirmed convenient and safe use of C. fistula, O. basilicum and their mix as natural antimicrobial and antioxidant. The mix of both extracts can be recommended as natural preservative to be used in food processing to control and prevent food contamination.

Cassia fistula and Ocimumbasilicum Antimicrobial activity antioxidant anti-inflammatory cytotoxicity assay foodborne pathogens

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Braga LC, Shupp JW, Cummings C, Pomegranate extract inhibits Staphylococcus aureus growth and subsequent enterotoxin production. J Ethnopharmacol 96: 335-339. 2005.
[2]  Doughari J. H, Pukuma MS, De N, Antibacterial effects of Balanites aegyptiaca L. Drel . and Moringa oleifera Lam . on Salmonella typhi. African J Biotechnol 6: 2212-2215. 2007.
[3]  Pirbalouti, A.G., Chaleshtori, A.R., Tajbakhsh, E., Momtaz, H., Rahimi, E. and Shahin, F, Bioactivity of Medicinal Plant Extracts against Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Food. Food, Agriculture and Environment, 7, 66-69. 2009.
[4]  Pandey A, Singh P, Antibacterial activity of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) with metal ion effect against food borne pathogens. Asian J Plant Sci Res 1: 69-80. 2011
[5]  Sapkota R, Dasgupta R, Rawat DS, Antibacterial Effects of Plants Extracts on Human Microbial Pathogens & Microbial Limit Tests. 2: 926-936. 2012.
[6]  Yamamura A, Murai A, Takamatsu H, Watabe K, Antimicrobial effect of chemical preservatives on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. J Heal Sci 46: 204-208. 2000.
[7]  El-moez SIA, Abdelmonem MA, Gomaa AM, Aziz MFA, In vitro antibacterial activities of dietary medicinal ethanolic extracts against pathogenic reference strains of animal origin. African J Microbiol Res 7: 5261-5270. 2013.
[8]  Dhiman R, Aggarwal N, Aneja KR, Kaur M, In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices. Int J Microbiol. 2016: 1-9. 2016.
[9]  Zargaran A, Mehdizadeh A, Zarshenas MM, Mohagheghzadeh A, Avicenna (980-1037 AD). J Neurol 259: 389-390. 2012.
[10]  Delgado B, Palop A, Fern├índez PS, Periago PM, Combined effect of thymol and cymene to control the growth of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells. Eur Food Res Technol 218: 188-193. 2004.
[11]  Verma, Vipul, Verma V, Antibacterial activity of extracts of Citrus, Allium & Punica against food borne spoilage. Asian J Plant Sci Res 2:503-509. 2012.
[12]  Akinpelu DA, Aiyegoro OA, Akinpelu OF, Okoh AI, Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of Bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning. Molecules 20: 416-429. 2015.
[13]  Akhtar N, Ihsan-ul-Haq, Mirza B, Phytochemical analysis and comprehensive evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of 61 medicinal plant species. Arab J Chem Ahead of Print. 2015.
[14]  Ahmad I, Owais M, Shahid M, Aqil F, Combating fungal infections: Problems and remedy. Chapter 2: Virulence and pathogenicity of fungal pathogens with special reference to Candida albicans. Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht, London New York 2010.
[15]  Laxmi V, Bhatia AK, Goel A, Phytochemicals Screening and Analysis using HPLC to determine the Antimicrobial efficacy of Cassia fistula extract. Adv Biores 6: 1-7. 2015.
[16]  Gajula D, Verghese M, Boateng J, Determination of total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant and chemopreventive potential of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.). Int. J. Cancer Res. 5: 130-143. 2009.
[17]  Khair-ul-Bariyah S, Ahmed D, Ikram M, Ocimum Basilicum: A Review on Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies. Pakistan J Chem 2: 78-85. 2012.
[18]  Miraj S, Kiani S, Study of pharmacological effect of Ocimum basilicum: A review. Der Pharm Lett 8: 242-245. 2016.
[19]  Kadaikunnan S, Rejiniemon T, Khaled JM, In-vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and functional properties of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 14:9. 2015.
[20]  Hamad GM, Taha TH, El-Deeb NM, Alshehri AMA, Advanced trends in controlling Helicobacter pylori infections using functional and therapeutically supplements in baby milk. J Food Sci Technol 52: 8156-8163. 2015.
[21]  Mbatchou VC, Kosoono I, Aphrodisiac activity of oils from Anacardium occidentale L. seeds and seed shells. Phytopharmacology 2: 81-91. 2012.
[22]  Hamad GM, Taha TH, Alshehri A, El-Deeb NM, Myrrh as a Functional Food with Therapeutic Properties Against Colon Cancer in Traditional Meals. J Food Process Preserv 41: e12963. 2017.
[23]  Croci AN, Cioroiu B, Lazar D, HPLC evaluation of phenolic and polyphenolic acids from propolis. Farmacia LVII: 52-57. 2009.
[24]  Brand-Williams, Cuvelier ME, Berset C, Use of a Free Radical Method to Evaluate Antioxidant Activity. Food Sci Technol 28: 25-30. 1995.
[25]  Ding, A., Nathan, C. and Stuehr. D,. Release of reactive nitrogen intermediates from mouse peritoneal macrophages: Comparison of activating cytokines and evidence for independent production. Journal of Immunology 141: 2407-2412. 1988.
[26]  Bhalodia NR, Nariya PB, Shukla VJ, Antibacterial and antifungal activity from flower extracts of Cassia fistula L.: An ethnomedicinal plant. J Ethnopharmacol 3: 160-168. 2011.
[27]  Phongpaichit S, Pujenjob N, Rukachaisirikul V, Ongsakul M, Antifungal activity from leaf extracts of Cassia alata L., Cassia fistula L. and Cassia tora L. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 26: 741-748. 2004.
[28]  Marwat SK, Ur-Rehman F, Khan MS, Phytochemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Sweet Basil-Ocimum basilicum L. ( Lamiaceae ). Asian J Chem 23:3773-3782. 2011.
[29]  Gork G, Okmen G, Ceylan O, Bayrak D, A study on comparison of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum basilicum var. minimum L. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 5: 1-15. 2016.
[30]  Politeo O, Jukic M, Milos M, Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of free volatile aglycones from basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) compared with its essential oil. Food Chem 101: 379-385 (2007).
[31]  Al-terehi M, Al-saadi AH, Al-musawi H, Zaida H, Synergism Effect of Antibacterial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants. J Biol Med Sci 1: 46-53. 2013.
[32]  Bobbarala V, Katikala PK, Naidu KC, Penumajji S, Antifungal activity of selected plant extracts againest phytopathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger F2723. Indian J Sci Technol 2: 87-90. 2009.
[33]  Njoki LM, Okoth SA, Wachira PM, Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus ( Raper and Fennell ). Int J Microbiol 2017: 1-9. 2017.
[34]  Bhalerao SA, Kelkar TS, Traditional Medicinal Uses, Phytochemical Profile and Pharmacological Activities of Cassia fistula Linn. Int Res J Biol Sci 1: 2278-3202. 2012.
[35]  Veerachari U, Bopaiah AK, Analysis of total flavonoids and phenolics in different species of Cassia. Int J Drug Dev Res 5: 115-120. 2013.
[36]  Oonsivilai R, Prasongdee P, Total phenolic contents , total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of Thai basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). In: 5th International Conference on Natural Products for Health and Beauty (NATPRO 5). p A-P-062 (104-108). 2013.
[37]  Chandra S, Khan S, Avula B, Assessment of total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant properties, and yield of aeroponically and conventionally grown leafy vegetables and fruit crops: A comparative study. Evidence-based Complement Altern Med. 2014.
[38]  Prakash D, Suri S, Upadhyay G, Singh BN, Total phenol, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some medicinal plants. Int J Food Sci Nutr 58: 18-28. 2007.
[39]  Kaur S, Mondal P, Study of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant Activity and Antimicrobial Properties of Medicinal Plants. J Microbiol Exp 1: 1-6. 2014.
[40]  Tzekiat LAI, Chiang LK, Total phenolics, total tannins and antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula L. extracts of bark, stem, leaf and root under different age classes. Asian J Parmaceutical Res Heal care 5: 52-57. 2013.
[41]  Jothy SL, Zuraini Z, Sasidharan S, Phytochemicals screening, DPPH free radical scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitiory activities of Cassia fistula seeds extract. J Med Plants Res 5: 1941-1947. 2011.
[42]  Aydemir T, Becerik S, Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of different extracts from ocimum basilicum, apium graveolens and lepidium sativum seeds. J Food Biochem 35: 62-79. 2011.
[43]  Wangcharoen W, Morasuk W, Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of holy basil. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 29: 1407-1415. 2007.
[44]  Deepika Priyadharshini S, Sujatha V, Antioxidant Assessment For Various Solvent Fractions Of Cassia fistula Linn . Flowers. Int J PharmaTech Res 4: 510-517. 2012.
[45]  Lim JW, Kim H, Kim KH, Nuclear factor-kappaB regulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression and cell proliferation in human gastric cancer cells. Lab Invest 81: 349-60. 2001.
[46]  Laskin DL, Sunil VR, Gardner CR, Laskin JD, Macrophages and Tissue Injury: Agents of Defense or Destruction? Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 51: 267-288. 2011.
[47]  El-Meligy RM, Awaad AS, Soliman G A, Prophylactic and curative anti-ulcerative colitis activity and the possible mechanisms of action of some desert plants. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 30: 250-258. 2015.
[48]  El-Meligy RM, Awaad AS, Soliman GA, Prophylactic and curative anti-ulcerogenic activity and the possible mechanisms of action of some desert plants. Saudi Pharm J 25: 387-396. 2017.