American Journal of Medical Sciences and Medicine. 2014, 2(4), 77-84DOI:
Abstract: Background to the Study: Phytochemicals of the raw liquid extract of Vernonia amygdalina used in the traditional treatment of Saki-East Local Government area of Oyo state in Nigeria in addition to the pathophysiology of Plasmodium infection that involves hepatic cells are metabolized in the liver which could cause biochemical alterations of plasma albumin, fibrinogen, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Total Bile Acids (TBA). Aim and Objective: This work was designed to determine the effect of the raw extract of Vernonia amygdalina used in the treatment of Plasmodium spp infection on acute phase protein (albumin, fibrinogen), Total bile acids and Lactate dehydrogenase. Materials and Method: Forty five 45 (72.6%) that were HIV, HBsAg and anti-HCV seronagative female-23 (51.1%); male-22 (48.9%) aged 21-48 years were recruited and studied out of the sixty two (62) patients infected with Plasmodium spp based on the exclusion and inclusion criteria from 5 herbal homes in Saki-East Local government area of Oyo-state-Nigeria. Giemsa-thick film staining technique was used for Plasmodium detection including estimation of plasmodium parasite density and Viral immunochemical serology for anti-HIV, anti-HCV and HBsAg was carried out in the 62 subjects initially recruited was determined by ELIZA and Immunoblotting. These tests were also employed in recruiting the normal control subjects (n=50). Plasma albumin, fibrinogen, Total Bile Acids and Lactate dehydrogenase were analyzed in the control and Plasmodium infected subjects before and after treatment with the raw extract of Vernonia amygdalina. Results: There was a significantly lower mean values of fibrinogen, LDH, Parasite density in the control Plasmodium non-infected subjects (264±10.6 mg/dl; 253 ±13.1 U/L; 0 µL) than the values (438±10.1 mg/dl; 302±18 U/L; 490±10.0 /µL) obtained in the plasmodium infected subjects before treatment with p<0.05. There was also a significantly lower mean values of fibrinogen and parasite density in the control Plasmodium non-infected subjects (264±10.6 mg/dl; 0/µL) than the values obtained in the Plasmodium infected patients after treatment with the extract (358±10.2 mg/dl; 205±15/µL) with p<0.05. However there was a significantly higher mean values of Fibrinogen, TBA, LDH, and Parasite density of 438±10.1 mg/dl, 13±1.8 µmol/L, 302±18 U/L and 490±10/µL respectively in the Plasmodium infected subjects before treatment than the values of the these parameters obtained in the same subjects after the treatment (358±10.2 mg/dl; 10.1±1.5 µmol/L; 264±12 U/L; 205±15/µL) with p<0.05. The results obtained also showed a lower significant difference in the plasma value of albumin in the Plasmodium infected subjects before treatment (3.6±0.3 g/dl) than the value obtained in the same subjects after treatment (4.1±0.2 g/dl) with p< 0.05. The immunochemical status of the Plasmodium infected patients revealed: 17.7% (11) out of the 62 Plasmodium infected patients were tested positive to HIV, HBsAg or anti-HCV which include: 9.7% (6) HIV, 4.8% (3) HBV and 3.23% (2) HCV while 8.1% (5) of them were detected to be alcoholics and 1.6% (1) was found to be under analgesic therapy using paracetamol. Conclusion: There was a significant biochemical alterations in the concentration of plasma acute phase proteins (fibrinogen, albumin), Lactate dehydrogenase, Total Bile acids and parasite density in Plasmodium infected patients before the traditional treatment with extract of Vernonia amygdalina which was restored almost to normal after the treatment supporting the use of Vernonia amygdalina as an effective anti-plasmodia agent. The result obtained also revealed the immunochemical status of the Plasmodium infected patients as: 17.7% (11) out of the 62 Plasmodium infected patients were tested positive to HIV, HBsAg or anti-HCV which include: 9.7% (6) HIV, 4.8% (3) HBV and 3.2% (2) HCV.