American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. 2014, 2(6), 138-144DOI:
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial resistance of bacteria associated with pneumonia in HIV/AIDS and HIV negative patients attending Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State. A total of 300 sputum samples were collected (180 from HIV/AIDS patients and 120 samples from HIV negative patients diagnosed for pneumonia) and were selected by random sampling. The sputum samples were collected and examined for bacteria using microscopic, cultural and biochemical characteristics. Antibiogram was carried out by disc diffusion method. Results showed that male subjects with HIV/AIDS were more susceptible to infection by bacteria associated with pneumonia than females. The age group of 31-40 years and 71-80 years had the highest occurrence of bacterial pneumonia in HIV/AIDS and HIV negative populations respectively. The prevalence of pneumonia in HIV/AIDS and HIV negative patients was 55.6% and 43.3% respectively. A variety of bacteria was isolated in both populations with Escherichia coli (40%) predominating in HIV/AIDS patients followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35%), S. aureus (20%) and the least was Klebsiella pneumoniae (5%). K. pneumoniae (44.2%) was the predominant bacterium in HIV-negative patients, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (30.8%) and S. aureus (25.0%) These bacterial isolates were tested for resistance to twenty antibiotics prescribed in hospitals. However, resistance to antibiotics ranged between 52.5% to 100% in HIV/AIDS patients and 18.8% to 84.6% in HIV negative patients. Multiple antibiotic resistance to nine classes of these twenty antibiotics was observed in 53.0% and 19.2% of all organisms isolated from HIV/AIDS group and HIV negative patients respectively. However, the variation in the profile of bacterial organism isolated in both populations was statistically significant; suggesting that immune status of HIV/AIDS patients predisposed them to infection by some of the bacteria.