World Journal of Nutrition and Health
ISSN (Print): 2379-7819 ISSN (Online): 2379-7827 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jnh Editor-in-chief: Srinivas NAMMI
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2014, 2(4), 58-60
DOI: 10.12691/jnh-2-4-3
Open AccessArticle

Cyanide Content of Commercial Gari from Different Areas of Ekiti State, Nigeria

BABALOLA Olubukola Omolara1,

1Department of Science Technology, Biochemistry Unit, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: December 21, 2014

Cite this paper:
BABALOLA Olubukola Omolara. Cyanide Content of Commercial Gari from Different Areas of Ekiti State, Nigeria. World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2014; 2(4):58-60. doi: 10.12691/jnh-2-4-3

Abstract

Gari, a creamy-white granular flour made from fresh cassava tubers have been known to contain residual cyanide (hydrocyanic acid) after processing. Cyanide is poisonous and ingestion of Gari beyond the permissible limit can lead to chronic toxicity. This study therefore investigated the presence of this chemical in Gari samples taken from different areas of Ekiti State in Nigeria to ascertain whether or not they are below the permissible level. Random samples of commercial Gari processed locally were collected from 6 areas of Ekiti State in South West Nigeria and screened for residual cyanide content. The alkaline picrate method was used for the screening. Four of the samples contained cyanide in the range of 2.10-9.10 mgHCN/kg which falls below the permissible limit while the remaining two samples had higher residual cyanide of 11.78 and 15.30mgHCN/kg which is above the permissible limit. WHO permissible limit of cyanide concentration is 10.0mgHCN/kg. The samples with concentration above 10mgHCN/kg are from areas where the cassava mash was fermented for less than 12 hours.

Keywords:
Gari cyanide permissible limit alkaline picrate method

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Akinrele, I.A. Further studies fermentation report No 20, Federal Institute of Industrial research, Oshodi, 1962.
 
[2]  Asiedu, J.J., Processing of tropical crops. Macmillan Publishers Ltd. London, 1989.
 
[3]  Cock, J.H., Cassava: New potential for a neglected crop, Westview press, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 1985.
 
[4]  Conn, E.E., Cyanogenic glucosides, J. Agr. Fd. Chem. 17:519-526, 1969.
 
[5]  Cooke, R.D. and Coursey, D.G., Cassava: a major cyanide containing food crop, in: cyanide in Biology, London: Academic press, 1981, 93-114.
 
[6]  Coursey,D.G., Cassava as food, in: Chronic cassava toxicity, Proceedings of an interdisciplinary workshop, London, England, International development Research centre monogr., 1973, 27-36.
 
[7]  Delauge, F., Bourdous, P., Camus, M., Gerard, M., Mafuta, M., Hanson, A. and Ermans, S.A., “Proc. IVth Intern. Sympos. on Tropical Root Crops”, ed. By J. Cock, R. Macintyre and M. Graham, CIAT Columbia, 1976, 237-242.
 
[8]  Ekpechi, O.L., Pathogenesis of endemic goiter in Eastern Nigeria. Brit. J. Nutr. 21,537-545, 1967.
 
[9]  FAO, Bankable Investment Project profile, Vol IV, Cassava Production, Processing and marketing Project, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, 2006.
 
[10]  FAO/WHO, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme Codex Alimentarious Commission, XII Supplement 4FAO Rome, 1999, 12-45.
 
[11]  Ikediobi C.O., Onyia G.O.C., Eluwah E.C., A rapid and inexpensive enzymatic assay for total cyanide in cassava and cassava products. Agric. Biol. Chem. 44 (12), 2803-09, 1980.
 
[12]  Lambri, M., Fumi, M.D., Roda, A. and Marco de Faveri, D., Improved processing methods to reduce the total cyanide content of cassava roots from Burundi, African Journal of Biotechnology, 12(19), 2685-691, 2013.
 
[13]  Leaky, C.L.A and Wills, J.B., Food crops of the lowland tropics, Oxford, London, 1977, 80-81.
 
[14]  Nambisan, B., Strategies for elimination of cyanogens from cassava for reducing toxicity and improving food safety. Food Chem.Toxicol. 49,690-693, 2011.
 
[15]  NRCRI, Briefs on research extension and teaching, National Root Crops Research Institute, 1987, 1-2.
 
[16]  Olugboji, O.O., Biochemical studies on the cyanide content of malted sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and sorghum products and the fate of sorghum dhurrin in the rat. M. Sc Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, 1987.
 
[17]  Onwueme, I.C., The tropical tuber crops, yams,cassava, sweet potato and cocoyam, John Wiley and Sons, New York and Brisbane, Toronto, 1978, 199-227.
 
[18]  Osuntokun B. O., “Chronic cassava toxicity: An interdisciplinary workshop”. Ed. by B. Nestel and R. Macintyre, London, England, 1973, 127-138.
 
[19]  Vasconcelos, A.T., D.R. Twiddy, A. Wesby and P.J.A Reilly, Detoxification of cassava during preparation. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 25: 198-203, 1990.