American Journal of Microbiological Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-4129 ISSN (Online): 2328-4137 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016, 4(6), 178-180
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-4-6-4
Open AccessArticle

Identification of Nematode Trapping Fungus Monacrosporium eudermatum Based on Genetic Diversity Using RAPD Technique

Ali A. Kasim1, and Maitham Dragh1

1Biological Department, College of Sciences, Misan University, Misan, Iraq

Pub. Date: December 29, 2016

Cite this paper:
Ali A. Kasim and Maitham Dragh. Identification of Nematode Trapping Fungus Monacrosporium eudermatum Based on Genetic Diversity Using RAPD Technique. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2016; 4(6):178-180. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-4-6-4


Nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium eudermatum a predacious fungus of nematodes, has been very useful in understanding the most relationship between nematophagous fungi and their nematode hosts. M.eudermatum is by far the common nematode-trapping fungus with the characteristic ability of forming adhesive trapping nets once in contact with nematodes. Total DNA was extracted from M.eudermatum sera and amplified by RAPD-PCR using three random primers (OPA-16, OPB-08, OPF-05). The results show amplification of all markers (OPF-05, OPB-08, OPA-16) with the genomic DNA studied. As evidenced by the results, all the markers covered in the study showed high polymorphism (up to 60%) with the exception of the primer (OPB-08) which showed no polymorphism.

nematophagous Monacrosporium eudermatum RAPD technique PCR

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Williams, J.G.K., Hanafey, M.K., Rafalski, J.A. and Tingey S.V., “Genetic analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers,” Methods Enzymol., 218: 704-741. 1993.
[2]  Mc-Donald, B.A., “The population-genetics of fungi tools and techniques,” Phytopathology, 87: 448-453. April. 1997.
[3]  Williams, J.G., Kubelik, A.R., Livak K.J., Rafalski, J.A. and Tingey, S.V. “DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers,” Nucleic Acids Res. 18(22): 6531-6535. Nov.1990.
[4]  Atkins, S.D., Clark, I.M., Sosnowska, D., Hirsch, P.R. and Kerry, B.R. “Detection and quantification of Plectosphaerella cucumerina, a potential biological control agent of potato cyst nematodes, by using conventional PCR, real-time PCR, selective media, and baiting,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 69(8):4788-93.Aug.2003.
[5]  Morton, C.O., Mauchline, T.H., Kerry, B.R. and Hirsch, P.R., “PCR-based DNA finger-printing indicates host-related genetic variation in the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia,” Mycol. Res., 107(Pt 2):198-205. Feb.2003.
[6]  Sugimoto, M., Koike, M., Hiyama, N. and Nagao, H., “Genetic, morphological, and virulence characterization of the entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii.” J Invertebr Pathol, 82(3):176-87. Mar.2003.
[7]  Zhang, Y., Qiao, M., Xu, J., Cao, Y., Zhang, K.-Q.and Yu, Z.F., “Genetic diversity and recombination in natural populations of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from China,” Ecol Evol., 3(2):312-25.Feb.2013.
[8]  Persson, Y., Erland, S. and Jansson, H. B., “Identification of nematode-trapping fungi using RFLP analysis of the PCR-amplified ITS region of ribosomal DNA.” Mycol. Res, 100: 531-534. May.1996.
[9]  Ahrén, D., Faedo, M., Rajastiekar, B. and Tunlid, A., “Low genetic diversity among isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtoniaflagrans: evidence for recent world wide dispersion from a single common ancestor,” Mycol. Res, 108 (10): 1205-1214. Oct.2004.
[10]  Meyer, S. L. F., Carta, L. K. and Rehner, S.A., “Morphological variability and molecular phylogeny of the nematophagous fungus Monacro-sporium drechsleri.” Mycologia, 97(2). 405-415. Mar./Apr. 2005.
[11]  Muhammad, N. U., Saifullah, M. A., Ijaz, A., Aqib, I. and Naqib, U. K., “Genetic characterization of Verticillium chlamydosporium isolated from Pakistan using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers,” Pak. J. Bot., 45(2): 467-472. 2013.
[12]  Herrera-Estrella, A., Casas-Flores, S. and Kubicek, C. P., “Nematophagous Fungi”. Environmental and Microbial Relationships 3rd Edition, The Mycota IV I.S. Druzhinina and C.P. Kubicek, (Eds.© Springer International Publishing Switzerland ), 2016, 247-267.
[13]  Miller, S.A., Dykes, D.D. and Polesky, H.F, “A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells,” Nucleic Acids Res. 11; 16(3): 1215Feb.1988.
[14]  Ahren, D., Ursing B. M., and Tunlid, A., “Phylogeny of nematode-trapping fungi based on 18S rDNA sequences,” FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 158:179-184. Jan.1988.
[15]  Li, Y., Hyde, K. D., Jeewon, R., Cai L., Vijaykrishna, V. and Zhang, K. Q., “Phylogenetics and evolution of nematode-trapping fungi (Orbiliales) estimated from nuclear and protein coding genes,” Mycologia 97(5):1034-46. Sep-Oct. 2005.
[16]  Yang, Y., Yang, E., An, Z. and Liu, X., “Evolution of nematode-trapping cells of predatory fungi of the Orbiliaceae based on evidence from rRNA-encoding DNA and multiprotein sequences,” Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104: 8379-8384.May. 2007.
[17]  Yang, E., Xu, L., Yang, Y., Zhang, X., Xiang, M., Wang, C. “Origin and evolution of carnivorism in theAscomycota (fungi),” Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109:10960-10965. Jul. 2012.
[18]  Zhang, W., Cheng, X. , Liu, Y. and Xiang, M., “Genome Studies on Nematophagous and Entomogenous Fungi in China,” J. Fungi, 2, 9 :1-14. Feb.2016.
[19]  Smith, M. E. and Jaffee, B. A.,”PCR Primers with Enhanced Specificity for Nematode-Trapping Fungi (Orbiliales),” Microb Ecol, 58:117-128. Jul.2009.
[20]  Castañeda-Ramírez, G.S., Mendoza-de-Gives, P., Aguilar-Marcelino, L., López-Arellano, M. E. and Hernández-Romano, J., “Phylogenetic Analysis of Nucleotide Sequen-ces from the ITS Region and Biological Characterization of Nematophagous Fungi from Morelos, Mexico,” Journal of Mycology. V. Article ID 8502629, 13 p. 2016.
[21]  Mauchline, T.H., Kerry, B.R. and Hirsch, P.R., “The biocontrol fungus Pochonia chlamy-dosporia shows nematode host preference at the in fraspecific level,” Mycol. Res., 108: 161-169. Feb. 2004.
[22]  Mauchline, T.H., Kerry, B.R. and Hirsch, P.R., “Quantification in Soil and the Rhizosphere of the Nemato-phagous Fungus Verticillium chlamydosporium by Com-petitive PCR,” Appl Environ Microbiol, 68(4): 1846-53. Apr.2002,
[23]  Siebert, P.D., and Larric, J.W. “Competitive PCR,” Nature, 359: 557-558. Oct. 1992.