Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
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Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016, 4(2), 108-114
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-4-2-7
Open AccessArticle

Chinese Herbal Medicine Safflower (Flos carthami) Does Not Increase Bleeding Complications: A Population-based Cohort Study

Lih-Hwa Lin1, 2, Jen-Huai Chiang1, 3, Pei- Chi Chou1, Po-Chi Liao4, San-Yuan Wu1, Kao-Sung Tsai1, 5, Huey-Yi Chen1, 3, Yung-Hsiang Chen1, 6, and Wen-Chi Chen1, 3,

1Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, School of Chinese Medicine, Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, Research Center for Chinese medicine & Acupuncture, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan

2Division of Chinese Medicine, An Nan Hospital, China Medical University, Tainan 709, Taiwan

3Management Office for Health Data, Departments of Dermatology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research, and Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan

4Department of Urology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan

5Management Office for Health Data, Departments of Dermatology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research, and Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan;Department of Applied Cosmetology, Master Program of Cosmetic Science, HUNGKUANG University, 433, Taiwan

6Management Office for Health Data, Departments of Dermatology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical Research, and Urology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan;Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan

Pub. Date: March 05, 2016

Cite this paper:
Lih-Hwa Lin, Jen-Huai Chiang, Pei- Chi Chou, Po-Chi Liao, San-Yuan Wu, Kao-Sung Tsai, Huey-Yi Chen, Yung-Hsiang Chen and Wen-Chi Chen. Chinese Herbal Medicine Safflower (Flos carthami) Does Not Increase Bleeding Complications: A Population-based Cohort Study. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016; 4(2):108-114. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-4-2-7


Safflower (Flos carthami; FC) has been used widely as a food additive, as a coloring and flavoring agent. It has also been used as a Chinese herbal medicine for improving blood flow and resolving thrombosis. This study investigated whether the risk of bleeding complications is increased among FC users. We conducted a retrospective study involving a test group that used FC and a control (non-FC users) group. The participants were aged 18 years and above, and were recruited from the 2000 – 2006. The participants were from beneficiaries of LHID2000. The FC cohort included participants who had been prescribed FC accumulated for more than 30 days, whereas the non-FC cohort included people who were not using FC prescriptions. The compared cohort individuals were randomly selected at a ratio of 1:4 and frequency matched by age, gender, and index year from FC user cohort group. The primary outcome was a new diagnosis of bleeding disorders including gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding (ICD-9-CM: 578.0, 578.1, 578.9), intracranial hemorrhage (ICD-9-CM: 432.0, 432.9), and blood transfusions (ICD-9-CM op-code: 99.0). The results showed that the proportions of participants with bleeding disorders were 2.6% and 2.3% in the FC and non-FC cohorts, respectively (P = 0.6675). In univariate and multivariate Cox’s proportional hazard regression models, the adjusted hazard ratio for bleeding disorders was 0.86 for the FC cohort relative to the non-FC cohort (P = 0.6094). In conclusion, the risk of bleeding complications was not increased among Chinese herbal medicine FC users.

bleeding disorder chinese herbal medicine safflower (Flos carthami) national health insurance database population-based cohort study

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