American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2018, 6(6), 258-262
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-6-6-5
Open AccessArticle

Antioxidant Activity, and α-Glucosidase, α-Amylase and Lipase Inhibitory Activity of Polyphenols in Flesh, Peel, Core and Seed from Mini Apple

Zhaohong Ci1, 2, Kazuto Kikuchi1, Aoi Hatsuzawa1, Arisa Nakai1, Chengyu Jiang1, 2, Atsushi Itadani2, 3 and Michiyuki Kojima2, 3,

1Department of Food Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, 11, Nishi-2-sen, Inada-machi, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan

2United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University, 3-18-8, Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550, Japan

3Department of Human Sciences, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, 11, Nishi-2-sen, Inada-machi, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan

Pub. Date: November 15, 2018

Cite this paper:
Zhaohong Ci, Kazuto Kikuchi, Aoi Hatsuzawa, Arisa Nakai, Chengyu Jiang, Atsushi Itadani and Michiyuki Kojima. Antioxidant Activity, and α-Glucosidase, α-Amylase and Lipase Inhibitory Activity of Polyphenols in Flesh, Peel, Core and Seed from Mini Apple. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2018; 6(6):258-262. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-6-6-5


Dietary inhibitors of fats and carbohydrates degrading digestive enzymes can reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated and compared polyphenol content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and inhibitory activity on digestive enzymes, including α-glucosidase, α-amylase and lipase in flesh, peel, core and seed from mini apple (Malu domestica cv. ‘Alps Otome’). Polyphenol content was significantly higher in peel and seed extracts than in flesh and core extracts. As comparing with flesh, peel polyphenols exhibited stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity, and α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity. Oligomeric polyphenols (Fra.II) were the main polyphenols in seed extracts, which exhibited significantly strong DPPH radical scavenging activity and inhibitory activity on digestive enzymes. However, monomeric polyphenols (Fra.I) were the main polyphenols in core extracts, which exhibited weak inhibitory activity on digestive enzymes than the other parts. Moreover, Fra.III of seed and peel extracts had the highest inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase, followed by Fra.II and Fra.I, respectively. It indicated that more highly polymerized polyphenols from peel and seed of mini apple showed more potent inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase. All of the observations suggested that mini apples possess useful properties. Particularly, it has potential applications for the treatment of diabetes and obesity.

mini apple polyphenol DPPH radical scavenging activity α-glucosidase α-amylase lipase

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 2


[1]  Spiegelman, B.M., Flier, J.S, “Obesity and the regulation of energy balance,” Cell, 104 (4). 531-543. Feb.2001.
[2]  Podsędek, A., Majewska, I., Redzynia, M., Sosnowska, D., Koziołkiewicz, M, “In vitro inhibitory effect on digestive enzymes and antioxidant potential of commonly consumed fruits,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62. 4610-4617. May.2014.
[3]  Yun, J. W, “Possible anti-obesity therapeutics from nature--a review,” Phytochemistry, 71. 1625-1641. Oct.2010.
[4]  Kumar, S., Narwal, S., Kumar, V., Prakash, O, “α-Glucosidase inhibitors from plants: A natural approach to treat diabetes,” Pharmacognosy, 5. 19-29. Jan.2011.
[5]  De Sales, P. M., Souza, P. M., Simeoni, L. A., Silveira, D, “α-Amylase inhibitors: a review of raw material and isolated compounds from plant source,” Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 15. 141-183. Jan.2012.
[6]  Roh, C., Jung, U, “Screening of crude plant extracts with anti-obesity activity,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13. 1710-1719. Feb.2012.
[7]  Ci, Z.H., Jiang, C.Y., Feng, S., Wu, S., Cui, Y., Sasaki, Y., Kojima, M, “Anti-Obesity Effect of Proanthocyanidins from the Coat of Scarlet Runner Beans on High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice,” Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 6 (2). 103-109. Feb.2018a.
[8]  Kao, Y.L., Kuo, Y.M., Lee, Y.R., Yang, S.F., Chen, W.R., Lee, H.J., “Apple polyphenol induces cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, and mitotic catastrophe in human bladder transitional carcinoma cells,” Journal of Functional Foods, 14. 384-394. Apr.2015.
[9]  Akiyama, H., Sakushima, J., Taniuchi, S., Kanda, T., Yanagida, A., Kojima, T., Teshima, R., Kobayashi, Y., Goda, Y., Toyoda, M, “Antiallergic effect of apple polyphenols on the allergic model mouse,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 23 (11). 1370-3. Nov.2000.
[10]  Miura, T., Chiba, M., Kasai, K., Nozaka, H., Nakamura, T., Shoji, T., Kanda, T., Ohtake, Y., Sato, T, “Apple procyanidins induce tumor cell apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway activation of caspase-3,” Carcinogenesis, 29 (3). 585-93. Mar.2008.
[11]  Sunagawa, T., Shimizu, T., Kanda, M., Tagashira, M., Sami, M., Shirasawa, T, “Procyanidins from apples (Malus pumila Mill.) extend the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans,” Journal of Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research, 77 (2). 122-127. Jan.2011.
[12]  Fruits and Vegetable Measures Program” Food standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ), [Online] Available: (Accessed Oct.3, 2018).
[13]  Miyashita, J., Nishi S., Saito Y., Koaze, H., Hironaka, K. and Kojima, M, “Annual variations in the anthocyanin contents of blueberry fruit grown in Hokkaido,” Research Bulletin of Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, 28. 35-40. Oct.2007.
[14]  Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E., Berset, C, “Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity,” Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie, 28. 25-30. Jun.1994.
[15]  Matsumoto, N., Ishigaki, A., Iwashina, H., Hara, Y, “Reduction of blood glucose levels by tea catechin,” Bioscience, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, 57. 525-527. Jun.1993.
[16]  Han, L.K., Xu, B.J., Kimura, Y., Zheng, Y., Okuda, H, “Platycodi radix affects lipid metabolism in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity,” Nutrient Metabolism, 130 (11). 2760-2764. Nov.2000.
[17]  Leontowicz, M., Gorinstein, S., Leontowicz, H., Krzeminski, R., Lojek, A., Katrich E., Cíz M., Martin-Belloso, O., Soliva-Fortuny, R., Haruenkit, R., Trakhtenberg, S, “Apple and pear peel and pulp and their influence on plasma lipids and antioxidant potentials in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(19). 5780-5. Sep.2003.
[18]  Ci, Z.H, Kojima, M, “Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of polyphenols in peel and core from five different pear varieties” Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 6 (9). 546-550. Sep.2018b.
[19]  Barbosa, A. C. L., Pinto, M. da, S., Sarkar, D., Ankolekar, C., Greene, D., Shetty, K, “Varietal influences on antihyperglycemia properties of freshly harvested apples using in vitro assay models,” Journal of Medicinal Food, 13. 1313-1323. Dec.2010.
[20]  Saidani F., Giménez R., Aubert C., Chalot G., Betrán J.A., Gogorcena Y, “Phenolic, sugar and acid profiles and the antioxidant composition in the peel and pulp of peach fruits,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 62. 126-133. Sep.2017.
[21]  Ci, Z.H, Jiang, C.Y., Kojima, M, “Suppressive effect of polyphenols from the seed coat of scarlet runner beans on blood glucose levels,” Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 6 (3). 182-186. Mar.2018c.
[22]  Sun, L., Chen, W., Meng, Y., Yang, X., Yuan, L., Guo, Y, “Interactions between polyphenols in thinned young apples and porcine pancreatic α-amylase: Inhibition, detailed kinetics and fluorescence quenching,” Food Chemistry, 208. 51-60. Oct.2016.
[23]  Shoji Toshihiko, “The Science of Apple fruit polyphenols The Science of Apple fruit polyphenols,” Food and Packaging, 54 (3). 143-149. Mar.2013.
[24]  McDougall, G. J., Kulkarni, N. N., Stewart, D, “Berry polyphenols inhibit pancreatic lipase activity in vitro,” Food Chemistry, 115. 193-199. Jul.2009.
[25]  Saito, Y., Nishi, S., Koaze, H., Hironaka, K., Kojima, M, “Antioxidant and inhibitory activity on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in legume polyphenols,” Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi, 54 (12). 563-567. Jan.2007.
[26]  Lu, Y.Y., Demleitner, M. F., Song, L.X., Rychlik, M., Huang, D.J., “Oligomeric proanthocyanidins are the active compounds in Abelmoschus esculentus Moench for its α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activity,” Journal of Functional Food, 20. 463-471. Jan.2016.