American Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-4827 ISSN (Online): 2333-4835 Website: Editor-in-chief: Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2019, 7(4), 122-126
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-7-4-3
Open AccessArticle

Physical Properties of Bread from Wheat– Cassava Flour Composite Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Peluola-Adeyemi O.A1, , Adepoju P.A1 and Lawal S.O1

1Department of Food Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: June 07, 2019

Cite this paper:
Peluola-Adeyemi O.A, Adepoju P.A and Lawal S.O. Physical Properties of Bread from Wheat– Cassava Flour Composite Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2019; 7(4):122-126. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-7-4-3


Physical properties of bread prepared from 90% wheat and 10% cassava composite flour were investigated using response surface methodology. A central composite rotatable experimental design with two factors and five levels was used. The independent variables were baking temperature and time. Thirteen baking trials were performed with five central points and eight non central points. The results showed that the crumb moisture, specific loaf volume, crumb hardness and overall acceptability values ranged from 33 - 39.6%, 3.80 - 4.8cm3/g, 63.00 - 70.25N and 6.2 - 8.1 respectively. There were significant differences (p< 0.05) in the physical properties of the bread samples and the physical properties were affected by the baking temperature and time. The bread samples baked at temperature of 195°C for 16.89 minutes were highly preferred by the panelists and the best processing conditions were baking temperature of 181.20°C at 24.18 minutes with desirability of 0.85. This research suggested that 10% inclusion of cassava in the production of bread would further increase the utilization of cassava flour, thereby promoting the economic value of the indigenous crop.

physical properties wheat/cassava baking temperature time bread

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Edema, M.O. and Sanni, A.I. (2008). Functional properties of selected starter cultures for sour maize bread. Food Microbiology 25:616-625.
[2]  Bureng, P.L. and Olatunji, O.O (1992). Wheatless bread development and extension. Federal International Institute Research Oshodi (FIIRO) publication. 37-38.
[3]  Osuji, C.M. (2006). Importance and use of additives in bread making. A paper presented at a training workshop on the use of cassava/wheat composite flour and non bromated additives for making bread and other confectioneries. Held at Micheal Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike.
[4]  Edema, M.O., Sanni, L.O. and Sanni, A.I. (2005). Evaluation of maize-soybean flour blends for sour maize bread production in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 4(9) 911-918.
[5]  Elemo, G.N., Osibanjo, A.A., Ibidapo, O.P, Ogunji, A.O., Asiru,W.B., Zakari, T and Olabanji, G.O (2017). Rheological characteristics and baking quality of flours from Nigerian grown wheat. African Journal of Food Science 11(12)/ 376-382.
[6]  Malomo,S.A, Eleyinmi, A.F and Fashakin, J.B (2011): Chemical composition, rheological properties and bread making potentials of composite flours from breadfruit and wheat. African Journal of Food Science 5(7): 400-410.
[7]  Shittu, T.A, Raji, A.O and Sanni LO (2007). Bread from composite cassava-wheat flour: I. Effect of baking time and temperature on some physical properties of bread loaf. Food Research International 40: 280-290.
[8]  Malcolmson, L.J, Matsuo, R.R and Balshaw, R. (1993). Textural optimisation of spaghetti using response surface methodology: effects of drying temperature and durum protein level. Cereal Chemistry 70: 417-423.
[9]  Turabi E, Sumnu, G and Sahin, S (2008). Optimization of baking of rice cakes in infrared-microwave combination oven by response surface methodology. Food & Bioprocess Technology 1 64-73.
[10]  AACC, (2000). Approved Method of the American Association of Cereal Chemist. St Paul MN USA
[11]  Greene, J.L and Bovell-Benjamin, A.C. (2004). Macroscopic and sensory evaluation of bread supplement with sweet potatoes flour. Journal of Food Science 69:167-173.
[12]  Iwe, M. O. 2002: Sensory Method and Analysis. Published by Rojoint Communication Services (Ed.), Enugu. Pp 49, 72
[13]  Stat-Ease (2002). Design Expert 6.0.8, stat ease, Inc. 2012, Ease Hennepin Ave., suite 4&6 Minneapolis, MN 55 413.
[14]  Zghal, M.C, Scanlon, M.G and Sapirstein, H.D (2002). Cellular structure of bread crumb and its influence on mechanical properties. Journal of Cereal Chemistry 36. 167-176.
[15]  Defloor I, Nys, M and Delcour, J.A (1993). Wheat starch, cassava starch, and cassava flour impairment of the bread making potential of wheat flour. Cereal Chemistry. 70: 526-530.
[16]  Lin, L., Liu, H., Yu, Y., Lin S.D and Mau, J (2009). Quality and antioxidant properties of buckwheat enhanced wheat bread. Journal of Food Chemistry 37: 461-467.
[17]  Eggleston, G., Omoaka, P.E., and Arowosegbe, A.U. (1993). Flour starch and composite bread making quality of various cassava clones. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 62, 49-59.
[18]  Ragaee, S., and Abdel-Aal, E.S.M. (2006). Pasting properties of starch and protein in selected cereals and quality of their products. Food Chemistry, 95, 9-18.
[19]  Ahlborn, G.J, Pike O.A, Hendrix, S.B, Hess, W.M and Huber, C.S (2005). Sensory mechanical and microscopic evaluation of staling in low-protein and gluten-free breads. Cereal Chemistry 82 328-335.