Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2014, 2(4), 66-79DOI:
Abstract: Research showed that adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) differentiate into mesodermal cell types and also reprogram to transdifferentiate into endodermal and ectodermal cell types. The present study induced BM-MSCs to transdifferentiate into neural-like cells (either neurons or glial cells) using Cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)in vitro. The harvested BM-MSCs from rabbit femur were cultured and characterized immunocytochemically by CD146 that showed positive reaction for MSCs. Autologous CSF was added daily to the culture media. Dramatic morphological and cytochemical modifications were observed in the cultured cells and identified by different staining methods. Nissl bodies observed in the soma usingcresyl violet stain, and cell bodies' processes (axons and dendrites) usingsilver impregnation, proved that BM-MSCs differentiated into neuronal cells. Periodic Acid-Schiff demonstrated glycogen granules in astrocytes used to verify astrocytes differentiation. Immunocytochemical examination for glial fibrillic acid protein marker showed positive reaction indicating successful astrocytes differentiation. This study showed that induction of BM-MSCs with CSF mimics the strategy done in CNS. CSFcould provide an essential niche for promoting the transdifferentiation of BM-MSCs into neural cells, that hopefully help in treating acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases.