American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2014, 2(4), 65-71DOI:
Abstract: HIV/AIDS is usually associated with co morbidities and co infections which may necessitate the concurrent use of antiretroviral drugs with other medications. This may place more burdens on body organs especially the liver which is the primary organ of drug metabolism. Therefore this study evaluates the toxicological effect of single and combined doses of SMX/TMP + LPV/r on the liver function and architecture of rats. Seventy five (75) animals which were divided into five (5) groups were used in this study. Group A which served as control contained fifteen (15) animals which were treated with 1% ethanol orally. Group B-E which contained fifteen (15) animals each was further subdivided into three (3) subgroups of five (5) animals each. Animals in these groups were treated with oral doses of SMX/TMP (11.2/2.3mg/kg), LPV/r (11.4/2.9mg/kg) and combine doses of SMX/TMP + LPV/r for 2-8 weeks respectively. Plasma levels of alanine aminotranferase, (ALT) aspartate aminotranferase, (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated. Liver malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and histopathological changes were also evaluated. Results showed that these agents have no significant toxic effects on the liver weight. Treatment with single doses of SMX/TMP and LPV/r produced a time dependent increase in AST, ALT, ALP and MDA. Significant synergistic increases in these parameters were not observed when these agents (SMX/TMP + LPV/r) were co administered. Single doses of these agents produced a time dependent decrease in SOD with no significant synergistic effects when combined doses of these agents (SMX/TMP + LPV/r) were used. Liver of animals treated with single and combined doses of SMX/TMP and LPV/r showed fairly preserved lobular architecture with vascular congestion and inflammatory cells infiltration in the parenchyma. Conclusion: In this study concurrent treatment with SMX/TMP + LPV/r produced no synergistic hepatotoxicity, hence these agents can be use concurrently in HIV/AIDS associated co infection and co morbidity.