International Journal of Physics
ISSN (Print): 2333-4568 ISSN (Online): 2333-4576 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ijp Editor-in-chief: B.D. Indu
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
International Journal of Physics. 2015, 3(3), 126-132
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-6
Open AccessArticle

Natural Radioactivity in Soil Samples in Nineveh Province and the Associated Radiation Hazards

Laith A. Najam1, , Shaher A. Younis1 and Fouzey H. Kithah2

1Physics Department, College of Science, Mosul Univ., Mosul, IRAQ

2Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, IRAQ

Pub. Date: April 15, 2015

Cite this paper:
Laith A. Najam, Shaher A. Younis and Fouzey H. Kithah. Natural Radioactivity in Soil Samples in Nineveh Province and the Associated Radiation Hazards. International Journal of Physics. 2015; 3(3):126-132. doi: 10.12691/ijp-3-3-6

Abstract

The natural radioactivity due to presence of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil of Nineveh zone, Nineveh province, Iraq were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry based on high-purity germanium detector. The specific activity of soil samples ranged from 16.21 to 38.83 Bq/kg with an average of value of 32.52±6.48 Bq/kg, 8.53 to 28.37 Bq/kg with an average of 20.30±5.36 Bq/kg, 236.03 to 613.11 Bq/kg with an average of 378.93± 123.29Bq/kg, and 2.18 to 17.92 Bq/kg with an average of 8.17± 5.55 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs respectively. The study also examine some radiation hazard indices such as Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Absorbed gamma dose rate (D), External hazard index (Hex), Internal hazard index (Hin) and gamma index (Iγ). These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil. The radium equivalent activity average (Raeq) was less than the permitted value (370 Bq/kg). The average absorbed dose rate value also less than the permissible limit of 55 nGy/h. The external hazard index, internal hazard index and gamma index of soil samples were less than unity.

Keywords:
soil radioactivity high-purity germanium detector absorbed dose rate activity concentrations external hazard index

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Rajeshwari T., Rajesh S., Kerur B.R., Anilkumar S., Krishnan Narayani, and Pant Amar D, (2014), Natural radioactivity studies of Bidar soil samples using gamma spectrometry, J Radioanal Nucl Chem, 300:61-65.
 
[2]  Kapsimalis R, Landsberger S, and Reguigui N. (2009) Measurement of uranium in small quantities in phosphates by use of γ-ray spectrometry and the 1001 keV peak of 234 mPa, J. Radioanal Nucl Chem 280(2):293-298.
 
[3]  Ajmal P. Y., Bhangare R. C., Tiwari M., Sahu S. K., and Pandit G. G., (2014), External gamma radiation levels and natural radioactivity in soil around a phosphate fertilizer plant at Mumbai, J Radioanal Nucl Chem, 300:23-27.
 
[4]  UNSCEAR, (2000), Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly, New York SalehȦ Adel Mehdi, Al-Mashhadani Asia H., and SiyahḂ Murtdha Adhab,(2014),
 
[5]  Natural Radioactivity Concentration and Estimation of Radiation Exposure in Environmental Soil Samples from Al-Sader City/Iraq, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology,4(4), 2902-2906.
 
[6]  Asgharizadeh F., Ghannadi M., Samani A. B., Meftahi M., Shalibayk M., Sahafipour S. A., and Gooya E. S.,(2013), Natural Radioactivity in surface soil samples from dwelling areas in Tehran city, IRAN, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 156( 3), 376-382.
 
[7]  Hasan M. Mehade, Ali M. I., Paul D., Haydar M. A., and Islam S. M. A.,(2013) Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in Coal, Soil and Water Samples Collected from Barapukuria Coal Mine in Dinajpur District of Bangladesh, Journal of Nuclear and Particle Physics, 3(4): 63-71.
 
[8]  Faisal B. M. R., Haydar M. A., Ali M. I., Paul D., Majumder R. K., and Uddin M. J., (2014), Assessment of Natural Radioactivity and Associated Radiation Hazards in Topsoil of Savar Industrial Area, Dhaka, Bangladesh, Journal of Nuclear and Particle Physics, 4(4): 129-136.
 
[9]  Ramola R.C., Gusain G.S., Badoni M., Prasad Y., Prasad G., Ramachandran T.V., (2008) J. Radiol Prot 28:379-385.
 
[10]  IAEA (1989) Measurement of Radionuclides in Food & the Environment, A guide book, Technical Report Series No. 295, IAEA, Vienna.
 
[11]  Rahman, M. M.A., Islam, A. T.A., Kamal M.B.,& Chowdhury M.I.B. (2012). Radiation hazards due to terrestrial radionuclides at the coastal area of Ship Breaking Industries, Sitakunda, Bangladesh. Science Journal of Physics, 2012(2), 1-6.
 
[12]  Najam, L.A., Tawfiq, N.F. &Kitha F. H.,(2013), Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials used in IRAQ, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(1): 56-66.
 
[13]  Jose, A., Jorge, J., Cleomacio, M., Sueldo, V., &Romilton, S.(2005).Analysis of the 40K Levels in Soil using Gamma Spectrometry. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology Journal, 221-228.
 
[14]  Kessaratikoon, P. and Awaekechi, S.(2008), Natural radioactivity measurement in soil samples collected from municipal area of Hat Yai District in Songkhla Province, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Science Journal, 8( 2), 52-58.
 
[15]  Xinwei, L. (2005). Natural radioactivity in some building materials of Xi’an, China. Radiation Measurements, 40, 94-97.
 
[16]  Berekta, J., & Mathew, P. J. (1985). Natural radioactivity in industrial waste and by product. Health Physics, 48, 87-95.
 
[17]  NEA-OECD. (1979). Nuclear energy agency. exposure to radiation from natural radioactivity in building materials. Report by NEA Group of Experts NEA.
 
[18]  El-Arabi, A. M., (2005). Gamma activity in some environmental samples in South Egypt. Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 43, 422-426.