American Journal of Nursing Research
ISSN (Print): 2378-5594 ISSN (Online): 2378-5586 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajnr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Nursing Research. 2019, 7(4), 400-411
DOI: 10.12691/ajnr-7-4-1
Open AccessArticle

Depression, Anxiety and Loneliness among Elderly Living in Geriatric Homes

Mona Mohamed Barakat1, , Naglaa Fathi Elattar1 and Hanan Nasef Zaki1

1Lecturer of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Benha University, Egypt

Pub. Date: May 05, 2019

Cite this paper:
Mona Mohamed Barakat, Naglaa Fathi Elattar and Hanan Nasef Zaki. Depression, Anxiety and Loneliness among Elderly Living in Geriatric Homes. American Journal of Nursing Research. 2019; 7(4):400-411. doi: 10.12691/ajnr-7-4-1

Abstract

Background: Elderly “living in old age care homes” are expanding in numbers; and are prone to psychological stress such as depression, anxiety and loneliness. Aim: This study was to assess depression, anxiety, and loneliness among elderly living in old aged homes. Research design: A descriptive exploratory design was utilized in this study. Setting: The study was conducted at the geriatric home in Benha City, Kaluobia Governorate, and the geriatric home in Tanta City, Gharbiya Governorate. Sample: A purposeful sample of 50 elderly (males & females) residing in elderly homes was included for the conduction of this study. Study tools: Tool (1): Structured Interview Questionnaire Schedule; Tool (2): Beck's Depression Inventory; Tool (3): Geriatric Anxiety Scale (GAS); and Tool (4): UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3). Results: About three quarters of the studied elderly have depression and more than two thirds have anxiety, while the majority of them suffer from loneliness. Regarding depression levels, less than two thirds have severe depression; more than of one third of them have severe and moderate anxiety. Regarding level of the loneliness, majority of the studied sample have severe loneliness. There is a highly statistical significant correlation between total loneliness and total depression, also between total geriatric anxiety and depression at p value <0.001, while there is statistical significant correlation between total loneliness and geriatric anxiety at p value <0.05. Conclusion: The study concluded that the studied elderly living in geriatrics homes had higher levels of depression, anxiety and loneliness. Recommendations: Intervention program or measures to manage or overcome anxiety, depression and loneliness among elderly living in geriatric homes.

Keywords:
anxiety depression elderly geriatric homes loneliness

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  World Health Organization, WHO, (2018). Ageing and health. Available at:https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ageing-and-health. Accessed on: 2/3/2019.
 
[2]  Maktha, S., & Kumar, M. (2015). Study on level of depression among elderly residing in an old age home in Hyderabad, Telangana. The International Journal of Indian Psychology. Volume 3, Issue 1, No.6. PP. 12-17.
 
[3]  Dahlberg, L., Andersson, L., McKee, K., & Lennartsson, C. (2015). Predictors of loneliness among older woman and men in Sweden: A longitudinal study. Aging and Mental Health, 19, 409-41.
 
[4]  Akbar, S., Tiwari, S.C., Tripathi, R., Pandey, N., & Kumar, A. (2018). Prevalence of psychiatric illness among residents of old age homes in Northern India. J Neurosci Rural Pract. 9(2): 193–196.
 
[5]  Sridevi, G., & Swathi, R. (2014). Death anxiety, death depression, geriatric depression and suicidal ideation among institutionalized and non-institutionalized elders. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 10. PP.1-8.
 
[6]  Khademi, M., Rashedi, V., Sajadi, S., & Gheshlaghi, S. (2015). Anxiety and loneliness in the Iranian older adults. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 5(2): 49-52
 
[7]  Bekta, H., Körükcü, Ö., & Kabukcuoğlu, K. (2017). Undercover fear of elderly people in nursing home: Death anxiety and depression. Journal of Human Sciences, 14(1), 587-597.
 
[8]  Babazadeh, T., Sarkhoshi, R., Bahadori, F., Moradi, F., Shariat, F., & Sherizadeh, Y. (2016). Prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress disorders in elderly people residing in Khoy, Iran (2014-2015). J Anal Res Clin Med. 4(2): 122-8.
 
[9]  Dastbaaz, A., Yeganehfarzand, S., Azkhosh, M., & Shoaee, F. (2014). The Effect of group counseling "Narrative Therapy" to reduce depression and loneliness among older women. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, Vol. 12, No. 20, PP.11-15.
 
[10]  Goud, A., & Nikhade, N. (2015). Prevalence of depression in older adults living in old age home. IAIM; 2(11): 1-5.
 
[11]  Ann, M. (2014). Depression and anxiety in older people. Available at.https://nationalseniors.com.au/uploads/0714826PAC_PAF_FactSheet_DepressionAndAnxiety_FN_0.PDF. Accessed on 7-3/2019.
 
[12]  Praveen, B.A., Udayar, S., Sravan S., & Arun, D. (2015). Depression and anxiety among the elderly persons from institutional and non-institutional settings in the field practice area of a tertiary-care institute, Andhra Pradesh: a comparative study. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2015; 4 (Online First).
 
[13]  Aung, K., Nurumal, M., & Bukhari, W. (2017). Loneliness among elderly in Nursing homes. International Journal for Studies on Children, Women, Elderly and Disabled, Vol. 2, PP.71-78.
 
[14]  Higuchi, M. (2018). Managing loneliness in the elderly and finding meaning in ageing. J Comp Nurs Res Care 3: 125.
 
[15]  Pitkala, K. (2016). Loneliness in nursing homes. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 1;17(8):680-1.
 
[16]  Ong, A., Uchino, B., & Wethington, E., (2016). Loneliness and health in older adults: A mini-review and synthesis. Gerontology. 62(4): 443–449.
 
[17]  Ahmed, D.1., El Shair, I., Taher, E., & Zyada, F. (2014). Prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety among the elderly population living in geriatric homes in Cairo, Egypt. J Egypt Public Health Assoc. Dec; 89(3):127-35.
 
[18]  Elias, S. (2018). Prevalence of loneliness, anxiety, and depression among older people living in long-term care: A Review. International Journal of Care Scholars (IJCS). 1(1), 39-43.
 
[19]  Barjam, L. (2015). A Comparative study on the level of depression between older women living in retirement homes in the City of Tirana and those living with their families in Tirana As Well. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS). Volume 14, No 2, pp 80-90.
 
[20]  Sharan, P., & Rai, S. (2016). Anxiety and Depression in Women in India. Available at: http://www.womenshealthsection.com/content/print.php3?title=gynmh001&cat=54&lng=english. Accessed on. 7/3/2019.
 
[21]  Beck, A. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II. (Appendix 14 Beck Depression Inventory).
 
[22]  Segal, D.., June, A., Payne, M., Coolidge. F., & Yochim, B. (2010). Development and initial validation of a self-report assessment tool for anxiety among older adults: The Geriatric Anxiety Scale. Journal of Anxiety Disorders; 24(7):709-14.
 
[23]  Russell, D. (1996). The UCLA Loneliness Scale (version 3): Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 20-40.
 
[24]  Panday, R., & Kumar, B. (2017). Quality of life among elderly living in old age home: a brief overview. Delhi Psychiatry Journal. Vol. 20 No. 2.PP.1-6.
 
[25]  Badr, S., & Shaheen, H. (2017). Health status, family support and depression among residents of elderly homes and those living with Families in Benha City and Associated Factors. The Egyptian Journal of Community Medicine. Vol. 35 No. 1, PP. 81-97.
 
[26]  Esmayel, E., Eldarawy, M., Hassan, M., Mahmoud, A., & Mohamed. S., (2013). Mental health problems and socio-demographic correlates in elderly medical inpatients in a University Hospital in Egypt. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research.Volume 2013, Article ID 923710, 4 pages.
 
[27]  Drageset, J., Dysvik, E., Espehaug, B., Natvig, G., & Furnes, B. (2015). Suffering and mental health among older people living in nursing homes—a mixed-methods study. PeerJ 3:e1120.
 
[28]  Abdul Manaf, M.,Mustafa, M., AbdelRahman, M., Aziz, N., and Hazadi, K. (2016). Factors influenhing the prevalence of mental health problems among Malay elderly residing in a rural community: a cross sectional study. PlosOne.
 
[29]  Grover, S., Avasthi, A., Sahoo, S., Lakdawala, B., Dan, A., Nebhinani, N., et al (2018). Relationship of loneliness and social connectedness with depression in elderly: A multicentric study under the aegis of Indian Association for Geriatric Mental Health. J GeriatrMent Health; 5: 99-106.
 
[30]  Vasilopoulos, A., Marinou, S., Rammou, M., Sotiropoulou, P., Roupa, Z., & Siamaga, E. (2018). A research on anxiety and depression of the elderly in the community. Hellenic Journal of Nursing Science 11(3): 59-66.
 
[31]  Gonzalez, R. (2015). Risk factors associated with depression and anxiety in older adults of Mexican Origin. Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy clinical psychology. Walden University.
 
[32]  Hassan, W., Abd El-Halim, Z., Ahmed, S., & Mostafa, N. (2017). Psychological problems as perceived by institutionalized and non-Institutionalized elderly. Journal of Education and Practice.8, (33). PP. 61-67.
 
[33]  Soni, S., Shukla, M., & Kumar, M. (2016). Prevalence of depression and associated risk factors among the elderly in rural field practice areas of a tertiary care institution in Katihar, Bihar. International Journal of Advances in Medicine.Nov; 3(4): 1016-1019.
 
[34]  Arslantaş, H., Adana, F., AbacigilErgin, F., Kayar, D., & Acar, G. (2015). Loneliness in ederlypeople. Associated factors and its correlation with Quality of life: A Field Study from Western Turkey. Iran J Public Health; 44(1):43-50.
 
[35]  Sayied, N., & Abd-Elaziz, N. (2015). Effect of Counseling Sessions as a Nursing Intervention on Depression and Loneliness among Elderly at AssiutCity. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science. Volume 4, Issue 6. PP 16-22.
 
[36]  Udayar, S., Patil, S., & Vadivel, K. (2016). Study of socioeconomic factors in relation to depression among elderly people living in rural area of and hra Pradesh. National Journal of Community Medicine. 7(5): PP.382-385.
 
[37]  Abu-Bader, S., Hamed, E., & Alqdah, T. (2017). Prevalence of depression among older Arab individuals in the Middle East: A study of Egypt and Jordan. Journal of Muslim Mental Health. Volume 11, Issue 1.PP. 57-59.
 
[38]  Bektaş, H., Körükcü, Ö., & Kabukcuoğlu, K. (2017). Undercover fear of elderly people in nursing home: Death anxiety and depression. Journal of Human Sciences, 14(1), 587-597.
 
[39]  Vakili, M., Mirzaei, M., & Modarresi, M. (2017). Loneliness and its related factors among elderly people in Yazd. Elderly Health Journal; 3(1): 10-15.
 
[40]  Kafle, B., Sharma, V., Ojha, S., Chapagain, M., Tulachan, P., & Dhungana, S. (2015). Prevalence of depression among elderly living in old age homes of Kathmandu Valley and its association with Socio-demographic variants. J Psychiatrists’ Association of Nepal Vol .4, No.1. PP.43-47.
 
[41]  El-Gilany, A., Sarraf , B., & Elkhawaga, G. (2018). Depression and its associated factors among elderly: A community-based study in Egypt. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 77, 103–107.
 
[42]  Aly, H., Hamed, A., & Mohammed, N. (2018). Depression among the elderly population in Sohag governorate. Saudi Med J; Vol. 39 (2).
 
[43]  Kumar, R., Satapathy, S., Adhish, V., & Nripsuta, S. (2017). Study of psychiatric morbidity among residents of government old age homes in Delhi. J Geriatric Mental Health; 4:36-41.
 
[44]  El-Sherbiny, N., Younis, A., & Masoud, M. (2016). Comprehensive assessment of the physical, nutritional, and psychological health status of the elderly populace in the Fayoum Governorate (Egypt). Arch Gerontological Geriatric; 66: 119-126.
 
[45]  El Kady, H., & Ibrahim, H. (2013). Depression among a group of elders in Alexandria, Egypt/Depression dans ungrouped’anciens Alexandria (Egypt). Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal; 19: 167.
 
[46]  Al-Kholy, R., El-Meshmeshy, E., & Saleh, A. (2016). Prevalence of geriatric depression among attendants of the family medicine outpatient clinics, in Kasr Al-Ainy, Faculty of Medicine: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study. Medical journal of Cairo University; 84: 97-106.
 
[47]  Raspopovic, D., Maric, N., Nedeljkovic, U., et al. (2014). Do depressive symptoms on hospital admission impact early functional outcome in elderly patients with hip fracture? Psychogeriatrics. 14(2):118-23.
 
[48]  Kaur, J., & Bajwa, A. (2017). A Comparative study to assess the prevalence of depression and loneliness among institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly In selected community in district Amaritsar And Tarntaran(Punjab).
 
[49]  Roh, H., Hong, C., Lee, Y., Oh, B., Lee, K., Chang, K., et al. (2015). Participation in physical, social, and religious activity and risk of depression in the elderly: A community-based three-year longitudinal study in korea. PLoS ONE, 10(7), e0132838.
 
[50]  Kang, H., Bae, K., Kim, S., Shin, I., Yoon, J., & Kim, J. (2016). Anxiety symptoms in Korean elderly individuals: a two-year longitudinal community study. International Psychogeriatry. 28: 423-433.
 
[51]  Singh, R., Lall, B., & Jain, V. (2013). Psychosocial problems: An issue among the elderly in Kathmandu, Nepal. International journal of health sciences and research,3(6), 48-53.
 
[52]  Timalsina, R. (2013). Factors associated with elderly anxiety and depression. A Research Report. Availableat:http://library.nhrc.gov.np:8080/nhrc/bitstream/handle/123456789/523/696.pdf?sequence=1.
 
[53]  Rahman, A. (2013). Anxiety and depression in lone elderly living at their own homes & going to geriatric clubs versus those living at geriatric homes. Available at: http://www.globalaging.org/health/world/2006/egyptelderly.pdf.
 
[54]  Victor, C., & Bowling, A. (2012). A Longitudinal analysis of loneliness among older people in great Britain, The Journal of Psychology, 146:3, 313-331.
 
[55]  National Institute of Mental Health, (2016). Anxiety disorders: Available at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/anxiety-disorders/ index.shtml. Accessed 22.3.2019.
 
[56]  Nikmat, A., Hashim, N., Omar, S., & Razali, S. (2015). Depression and loneliness/social isolation among patients with cognitive impairment in nursing home. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry; 16(2):222-31.
 
[57]  Aylaz R., Aktürk, Ü., Erci, B., Öztürk, H., & Aslan, H. (2012). Relationship between depressionand loneliness in elderly and examination of influential factors. Arch GerontolGeriatr; 55: 548-54.
 
[58]  Desai, R., Abraham, D., Harshe, D., Ramakrishnan, A., Cholera, R., & Kale, S. (2016). Study of depression, perceived loneliness, cognitive function and independence in daily activities in home and institution based older people: A cross sectional comparative study. J GeriatrMentHealth; 3:140-4.
 
[59]  Santini, Z., Fiori, K., Feeney, J., Tyrovolas, S., Haro, J., Koyanagi, A, et al. (2016). Social relationships, loneliness, and mental health among older men and women in Ireland: A prospective community-based study. J Affect Disord 2016; 204:59-69.
 
[60]  Houtjes, W., Meijel, B., Van, M., Deeg, D., Tilburg, T., Beekman, A, et al. (2014). The impact of an unfavorable depression course on network size and loneliness in older people: A longitudinal study in the community. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry; 29:1010-7.
 
[61]  Tiwari, S. (2013). Loneliness: A disease? Indian Journal of Psychiatry 55: 320-322.
 
[62]  Sayied, N., & Abd-Elaziz, N. (2015). Effect of Counseling Sessions as a Nursing Intervention on Depression and Loneliness among Elderly at AssiutCity. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science. Volume 4, Issue 6. PP 16-22.
 
[63]  Singh, A., & Misra, N. (2009). Loneliness, depression and sociability in old age Ind Psychiatry J. Jan-Jun; 18(1): 51-55.
 
[64]  Dahlberg, L., Andersson, L., McKee, K., & Lennartsson, C. (2015). Predictors of loneliness among older woman and men in Sweden: A longitudinal study. Aging and Mental Health, 19, 409-41.
 
[65]  Healthy Place, (2016). Relationship between depression and anxiety. Available at:https://www.healthyplace.com/depression/anxiety-and depression/relationship-between-depression-and-anxietyAccess 12/12/2018.
 
[66]  Bhattarai, B., & Poudyal, S. (2018). Depression among elderly people attending at Senior Citizen Home, Bhaktapur. Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences, 3(1), 36-44.
 
[67]  Thilak SA, Sarada AK, & Neloopant SA. (2016). Prevalence and factors associated with depression among the elderly in rural areas of Kannur, North Kerala, India-a cross sectional study. Int J Community Med Public Health; 3:1986-91.
 
[68]  Schimelpfening, N. (2018). How to deal with depression after retirement. Available at: https://www.verywellmind.com/depression-after-retirement-1067239.Accessed on .22/3/2019.
 
[69]  Zhou, X. et al., (2014). The prevalence and risk factors for depression symptoms in a rural Chinese sample population. PLoS One. 9, e99692 (2014).
 
[70]  Khosravan, S., Alaviani, M., Alami, A., Tavakolizadeh, J. (2014). Epidemiology of loneliness in elderly women. Journal of Research & Health; 4: 871-7.
 
[71]  Teh, J., Tey, N., & Ng, S. (2014). Family support and loneliness among older persons in multiethnic Malaysia. The Scientific World Journal. V.
 
[72]  Neto, F. (2014). Socio-Demographic predictors of loneliness across the adult life span in Portugal.An International Journal on Personal Relationships, l 8(2). PP.222-230.