American Journal of Microbiological Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-4129 ISSN (Online): 2328-4137 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajmr Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014, 2(1), 8-15
DOI: 10.12691/ajmr-2-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Twitching Motility, Biofilm Communities in Cephalosporin Resistant Proteus spp and the Best in vitro Amoxicillin Susceptibility to Isolates

Aktar Uzzaman Chouduri1, and Abdul Wadud1

1Department of Pharmacy, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

Pub. Date: January 10, 2014

Cite this paper:
Aktar Uzzaman Chouduri and Abdul Wadud. Twitching Motility, Biofilm Communities in Cephalosporin Resistant Proteus spp and the Best in vitro Amoxicillin Susceptibility to Isolates. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2014; 2(1):8-15. doi: 10.12691/ajmr-2-1-2

Abstract

Proteus strains isolated from tap water are assessed for their twitching motility and biofilm formation on urethral catheter strips of two selected brands, Protos and Huaian, since these strains are the common cause of catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Neither the strains of high swarming motility nor of high antimicrobial resistance enabled to twitch over the catheter strips. All of high antibiotic resistant strains were found to form biofilm on PVC strip, few strains on Huaian catheter strip and one strain (Pv) on both catheter strips. Based on biofilm quantification study, the urethral catheter from Protos brand was relatively safer than that of Huaian brand to prevent CAUTI. Moreover, Proteus isolates were strong resistant to cotrimoxazole (folate synthesis inhibitor) and cephalosporins (cell wall synthesis inhibitor). Underlying the β-lactam group, strong cephalosporin resistance and amoxicillin susceptibility in isolates indicated that the isolates were non β-lactamase producer. Tested antibiotics underlying the protein and DNA synthesis inhibitors were satisfactorily effective for the inhibition of Proteus isolates. The phenolic acid, –C6H4OH, present in the chemical formula of amoxicillin plays a crucial role in cell wall synthesis of Proteus isolates allowing more drugs to cell wall via porins.

Keywords:
Proteus urethral catheter biofilm cephalosporin resistance amoxicillin sensitivity

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 8

References:

[1]  Kunin, C.M., Care of the urinary catheter: Urinary tract infections, detection, prevention and management, 5th Ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1997, 227-279.
 
[2]  Stamm, W.E., “Catheter-associated urinary tract infections: epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention,” Am J Med, 91(3), 65S-71S, Sep 1991.
 
[3]  Warren, J.W., “The catheter and urinary tract infection,” Med Clin North Am, 75(2), 481-493, Mar 1991.
 
[4]  Siebert, J.D., Thomson, R.B., Tan, J.S. and Gerson, L.W., “Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative bacilli causing bacteremia during therapy,” Am J Clin Pathol, 100(1), 47-51, May 1993.
 
[5]  Jarlier, V., Fosse, T. and Philippon, A., “Antibiotic susceptibility in aerobic gram-negative bacilli isolated in intensive care units in 39 French teaching hospitals,” Intensive Care Med, 22(10), 1057-1065, Oct 1996.
 
[6]  Saint, S. and Chenoweth, C.E., “Biofilm and catheter-associated urinary tract infections,” Infect Dis Clin North Am, 17(2), 411-32, Jun 2003.
 
[7]  Maki, D.G. and Tambyah, P.A., “Engineering out the risk for infection with urinary catheters,” Emerg Infect Dis, 7(2), 342-347, Mar-Apr 2001.
 
[8]  Saint, S., Lipsky, B.A. and Goold, S.D., “Indwelling urinary catheters: a one-point restraint,” Ann Intern Med, 137(2), 125-7, Jul 2002.
 
[9]  Rozalski, A., Sidorczyk, Z. and Kotelko, K., “Potential virulence factors of Proteus bacilli,” Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 61(1), 65-89, Mar 1997.
 
[10]  Rashid, M.H. and Kornberg, A., “Inorganic polyphosphate is needed for swimming, swarming and twitching motilities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa,” PNAS, 97(9), 4885-4890, Apr 2000.
 
[11]  Costerton, J.W., “Introduction to biofilm,” Int J Antimicrob Agents, 11(3-4), 217-221, May 1999.
 
[12]  Bagge, N., Ciofu, O., Skovgaard, N.T. and Hoiby, N., “Rapid development in vitro and in vivo of resistance to ceftazidime in biofilm-growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to chromosomal β-lactamase,” APMIS, 108(9), 589-600, Jul 2000.
 
[13]  Chandra, J., Mukherjee, P.K., Leidich, S.D., Faddoul, F.F., Hoyer, L.L., Douglas, L.J. and Ghannoum, M.A., “Antifungal resistance of candidal biofilm formed on denture acrylic in vitro,” J Dent Res, 80(3), 903-908, Mar 2001.
 
[14]  Xu, K.D., McFeters, G.A. and Stewart, P.S., “Biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents,” Microbiology, 146(3), 547-549, Mar 2000.
 
[15]  Hola, V., Peroutkova, T. and Ruzicka, F., “Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections,” FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol, 65(2), 343-349, Jul 2012.
 
[16]  Dewanti, R. and Wong, A.C.L., “Influence of culture conditions on biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7,” Int J Food Microbiol, 26(2), 147-164, Jul 1995.
 
[17]  Uhlich, G.A., Cooke, P.D. and Solomon, E.B., “Analyses of the red dry-rough phenotype of an Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain and its role in biofilm formation and resistance to antibacterial agents,” Appl Environ Microbiol, 72(6), 2564-2572, Apr 2006.
 
[18]  Uhlich, G.A., Sinclair, J.R., Warren, N.G., Chmielecki, W.A. and Fratamico, P., “Characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates associated with two multistate food-borne outbreaks that occurred in 2006,” Appl Environ Microbiol, 74(4), 1268-1272, Feb 2008.
 
[19]  Klayman, B.J., Volden, P.A., Stewart, P.S. and Camper, A.K., “Escherichia coli O157:H7 requires colonizing partner to adhere and persist in a capillary flow cell,” Environ Sci Technol, 43(6), 2105-2111, Feb 2009.
 
[20]  Donlan, R.M., “Biofilm formation: A clinically relevant microbiological process,” Clin Infec Dis, 33(8), 1387-92, Oct 2001.
 
[21]  Wadud, A. and Chouduri, A.U., “Microbial safety assessment of municipal water and incidence of multi-drug resistant Proteus isolates in Rajshahi, Bangladesh,” Curr Res Microbiol Biotechnol, 1(4), 189-195, Jul 2013.
 
[22]  Chouduri, A.U. and Wadud, A., “Strong cephalosporin resistant uropathogen, Proteus mirabilis, in urban tap water harbors a risk to public health, Bangladesh,” Glo Adv Res J Microbiol, 2(10), 164-171, Nov 2013.
 
[23]  Chouduri, A.U., Wadud, A. and Islam, A.U., “Extended spectrum multi-drug resistance versus pathogenic factors- swarming, proteases, and urease- of Proteus species,” Int Res J Microbiol, 4(10), 232-237, Dec 2013.
 
[24]  Lopez-Lopez, G., Pascual, A. and Perea, J., “Effect of plastic catheter material on bacterial adherence and viability,” J Med Microbiol, 34(6), 349-353, Jun 1991.
 
[25]  O’Toole, G.A. and Kolter, R., “Initiation of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 proceeds via multiple, convergent signaling pathways: A genetic analysis,” Mol Microbiol, 28(3), 449-461, Apr 1998.
 
[26]  Aiassa, V., Barnes, A.I. and Albesa, I., “Macromolecular oxidation in planktonic population and biofilm of Proteus mirabilis exposed to ciprofloxacin,” Cell Biochem Biophys, 1-6, Jun 2013.
 
[27]  Deighton, M.A., Capstick, J., Domalewski, E. and Van, N.T., “Methods for studying biofilm produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis,” Methods in Enzymol, 336, 177-195, 2001.
 
[28]  Matsuyama, T., Takagi, Y., Nakagawa, Y., Itoh, H., Wakita, J. and Matsushita, M., “Dynamic aspects of the structured cell population in a swarming colony of Proteus mirabilis,” J Bacteriol, 182(2), 385-393, Jan 2000.
 
[29]  Mulhall, A.B., Chapman, R.G. and Crowe, R.A., “Bacteriuria during indwelling urethral catheterization,” J Hospital Infec, 11(3), 253-262, Apr 1988.
 
[30]  Sabbuba, N., Hughes, G. and Stickler, D.J., “The migration of Proteus mirabilis and other urinary tract pathogens over Foley catheters,” BJU Int, 89(1), 55-60, Jan 2002.
 
[31]  Jones, B.V., Young, R., Mahenthiralingam, E. and Stickler, D.J., “Ultrastructure of Proteus mirabilis swarmer cell rafts and role of swarming in catheter-associated urinary tract infections,” Infect Immun, 72(7), 3941-3950, Jul 2004.
 
[32]  Liedl, B., “Catheter-associated urinary tract infections,” Curr Opin Urol, 11(1), 75-79, Jan 2001.
 
[33]  Peach, K.C., Bray, W.M., Winslow, D., Liningtond, P.F. and Linington, R.G., “Mechanism of action-based classification of antibiotics using high-content bacterial image analysis,” Mol Bio Syst, 9, 1837-1848, Apr 2013.
 
[34]  Rozalski, A., Sidorczyk, Z. and Kotelko, K., “Potential virulence factors of Proteus bacilli,” Microbiol Mol Biol Rev, 61(1), 65-89, Mar 1997.
 
[35]  Lindum, P.W., Anthoni, U., Christophersen, C., Eberl, L., Molin, S. and Givskov, M., “N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone autoinducers control production of an extracellular lipopeptide biosurfactant required for swarming motility in Serratia liquefaciens MG1,” J Bacteriol, 180(23), 6384-6388, Dec 1998.
 
[36]  O’Loughlin, C.T., Miller, L.C., Siryaporn, A., Drescher, K., Semmelhack, M.F. and Bassler, B.L., “A quorum-sensing inhibitor blocks Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and biofilm formation,” PNAS, 110(44), 17981-17986, Oct 2013.
 
[37]  Mattick, J.S., “Type IV pili and twitching motility,” Annu Rev Microbiol, 56, 289-314, Oct 2002.
 
[38]  Stickler, D. and Hughes, G., “Ability of Proteus mirabilis to swarm over urethral catheters,” Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 18(3), 206-208, Apr 1999.