American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-4005 ISSN (Online): 2328-403X Website: Editor-in-chief: Dario Galante
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American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research. 2021, 9(2), 36-42
DOI: 10.12691/ajcmr-9-2-1
Open AccessReview Article

Clinical Research: An Overview of Study Types, Designs, and Their Implications in the Public Health Perspective

Venkataramana Kandi1, and Sabitha Vadakedath2

1Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, Telangana, India

2Department of Biochemistry, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, Telangana, India

Pub. Date: August 30, 2021

Cite this paper:
Venkataramana Kandi and Sabitha Vadakedath. Clinical Research: An Overview of Study Types, Designs, and Their Implications in the Public Health Perspective. American Journal of Clinical Medicine Research. 2021; 9(2):36-42. doi: 10.12691/ajcmr-9-2-1


Human health is plagued by several challenges throughout life. Different endogenous and exogenous factors influence the well-being of humans. The endogenous factors may be the enzymes and hormonal functions that alter the normal human physiological status and cause diseases like metabolic disorders, organ dysfunctions (liver diseases, heart diseases), and several others. Also, the human immune system and the cells involved in the immune responses may be disturbed causing autoimmune disorders, and tumors/cancers/malignancies. The exogenous reasons for human illnesses may be infectious diseases caused by microbes, chemicals, toxins, and others to those humans get exposed during their lifetime. The management of such illnesses and diseases is generally carried out by qualified physicians, and surgeons, and respective clinical experts in healthcare institutions that include hospitals. The drugs, devices, and other agents used to manage human diseases are synthesized and tested exhaustively before being approved and marketed for human use for their safety and efficacy by performing clinical research. In this review, we attempt to delineate the different types of clinical research and their implications.

human health endogenous exogenous immune system clinical experts clinical research drugs hospitals healthcare safety and efficacy

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