Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014, 2(10), 664-670
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-2
Open AccessArticle

The Inhibitory Effect of Different Solvents Extracts from Walnut Shell (Juglans regia L.) on Pancreatic Lipase and Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

Jiong Yang1, Chaoyin Chen1, , Shenglan Zhao2, , Feng Ge1 and Diqiu Liu1

1Faculty of life science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, People's Republic of China

2Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming, People's Republic of China

Pub. Date: September 19, 2014

Cite this paper:
Jiong Yang, Chaoyin Chen, Shenglan Zhao, Feng Ge and Diqiu Liu. The Inhibitory Effect of Different Solvents Extracts from Walnut Shell (Juglans regia L.) on Pancreatic Lipase and Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2014; 2(10):664-670. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-2-10-2


In this article, the effect of the solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, chloroform, N-butanol and ethyl acetate) on the extraction yields (EY), total flavonoids content (TFC), total phenols content (TPC) form walnut shell and the inhibitory effect of extracts on pancreatic lipase were analysed. The kinetics of enzyme inhibition and was investigated. The inhibitory effect of extracts on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was also investigated. The highest EY, TFC and TPC were achieved with N-butanol (4.54%), Ethyl acetate (80.40 mg QEs/g extract) and ethyl acetate (200.40 mg GAE/g extract). The order of inhibitory activity was methanol extract (ME) > ethyl acetate extract (EAE) > ethanol extract (EE) > water extract (WE) > N-butanol extract (NBE) > chloroform extract (CE), the inhibition ratios were 82.51%, 73.13%, 70.49%, 69.42%, 65.57% and 60.66%, respectively under the concentration of 500 μg/mL. The IC50 values of WE, ME, EE, CE, NBE and EAE were 371.35, 308.91, 407.57, 196.50, 247.79 and 254.27 μg/mL respectively. The inhibitory types of walnut shell extracts were noncompetitive. All the extracts were non-toxic to 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The ME, EE, CE, NBE and EAE have inhibitory effect on triglyceride accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells.

walnut shell solvents extraction pancreatic lipase obesity

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Cohen J C, Horton J D, Hobbs H H. Human fatty liver disease: old questions and new insights. Science, 2011, 332: 1519-1523.
[2]  Bustanji Y, Al-Masri I M, Mohammad M, et al. Pancreatic lipase inhibition activity of trilactone terpenes of Ginkgo biloba. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, 2011, 26: 453-459.
[3]  Li Y Q, Yang P, Gao F, et al. Probing the interaction between 3 flavonoids and pancreatic lipase by methods of fluorescence spectroscopy and enzymatic kinetics. European Food Research and Technology, 2011, 233: 63-69.
[4]  Garza A L, Milagro F I, Boque N, et al. Natural inhibitors of pancreatic lipase as new players in obesity treatment. Planta Medica, 2011, 77, 773-785.
[5]  Rubio M A, Gargallo M, Isabel Millán A, et al. Drugs in the treatment of obesity: sibutramine, orlistat and rimonabant. Public Health Nutrition, 2007, 10: 1200-1205.
[6]  Gholamhoseinian A, Shahouzehi B, Sharififar F. Inhibitory effect of some plant extracts on pancreatic lipase. International Journal of Pharmacology, 2010, 6, 18-24.
[7]  Kim E S, Oh K H, Kim S B, et al. Articles: inhibitory effects of marine algae extract on adipocyte differentiation and pancreatic lipase activity. Natural Product Sciences, 2012, 18: 153-157.
[8]  Birari R B, Bhutani K K. Pancreatic lipase inhibitors from natural sources: unexplored potential. Drug Discovery Today, 2007, 12: 879-889.
[9]  Gosmann G, Barlette A G, Dhamer T, et al. Phenolic compounds from mate (Ilex paraguariensis) inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 2012, 67: 156-161.
[10]  An Y, Zhang Y, Li C, et al. Inhibitory effects of flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot flowers on triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Fitoterapia, 2011, 82: 595-600.
[11]  Srinivasan A, Viraraghavan T. Removal of oil by walnut shell media. Bioresource Technology, 2008, 99: 8217-8220.
[12]  Pirayesh H, Khazaeian A, Tabarsa T. The potential for using walnut (Juglans regia L.) shell as a raw material for wood-based particleboard manufacturing. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2012, 43: 3276-3280.
[13]  Akbari V, Jamei R, Heidari R, et al. Antiradical activity of different parts of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) fruit as a function of genotype. Food Chemistry, 2012, 135: 2404-2410.
[14]  Fernández-Agulló A, Pereira E, Freire M S, et al. Influence of solvent on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husk extracts. Industrial Crops and Products, 2013, 42: 126-132.
[15]  Li X, Chen W, Chen D. Protective effect against hydroxyl-induced DNA damage and antioxidant activity of Radix Glycyrrhizae (Liquorice Root). Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2013, 3, 167-173.
[16]  Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar H Z E, Rahmat A. Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and flavonoids content in two varieties of Malaysia young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Molecules, 2010, 15: 4324-4333.
[17]  Zhang Z, He F, Zhuo R. Immobilized lipase on porous silica particles: Preparation and application for biodegradable polymer syntheses in ionic liquid at higher temperature. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, 2013, 94: 129-135.
[18]  Martins F, Noso T M, Porto V B, et al. Maté tea inhibits in vitro pancreatic lipase activity and has hypolipidemic effect on high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Obesity, 2010, 18: 42-47.
[19]  Vaidya H, Goyal R K, Cheema S K. Anti-diabetic activity of swertiamarin is due to an active metabolite, gentianine, that upregulates PPAR-g gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells. Cell, 2012, 40: 60.
[20]  Lii C K, Huang C Y, Chen H W, et al. Diallyl trisulfide suppresses the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through ERK activation. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2012, 50: 478-484.
[21]  Li X, Ycaza J, Blumberg B. The environmental obesogen tributyltin chloride acts via peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma to induce adipogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2011, 127: 9-15.
[22]  Jaiswal A K, Abu-Ghannam N, Gupta S. A comparative study on the polyphenolic content, antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity of different solvent extracts of Brassica oleracea vegetables. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 2012, 47: 223-231.
[23]  Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar H Z E, Rahmat A. Effects of solvent type on phenolics and flavonoids content and antioxidant activities in two varieties of young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extracts. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2011, 5: 1147-1154.
[24]  Jaiswal A K, Rajauria G, Abu-Ghannam N, et al. Effect of different solvents on polyphenolic content, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of Irish York cabbage. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 2012, 36: 344-358.
[25]  Fernández-Agulló A, Pereira E, Freire M S, et al. Influence of solvent on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husk extracts. Industrial Crops and Products, 2013, 42: 126-132.
[26]  Al-Farsi M A, Lee C Y. Optimization of phenolics and dietary fibre extraction from date seeds. Food Chemistry, 2008, 108: 977-985.
[27]  Bucić-Kojić A, Planinić M, Tomas S, et al. Study of solid–liquid extraction kinetics of total polyphenols from grape seeds. Journal of Food Engineering, 2007, 81: 236-242.
[28]  Sahreen S, Khan M R, Khan R A. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts of Carissa opaca fruits. Food chemistry, 2010, 122: 1205-1211.
[29]  Chaleshtori R S, Chaleshtori F S, Rafieian M. Biological characterization of Iranian walnut (Juglans regia) leaves. Turkish Journal of Biology, 2011, 35: 635-639.
[30]  Liu S, Li D, Huang B, et al. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase, α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and hypolipidemic effects of the total flavonoids from Nelumbo nucifera leaves. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2013, 149: 263-269.
[31]  Gondoin A, Grussu D, Stewart D, et al. White and green tea polyphenols inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. Food Research International, 2010, 43: 1537-1544.
[32]  Marrelli M, Loizzo M R, Nicoletti M, et al. Inhibition of key enzymes linked to obesity by preparations from Mediterranean dietary plants: effects on α-amylase and pancreatic lipase activities. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 2013, 68: 340-346.
[33]  You Q, Chen F, Wang X, et al. Inhibitory effects of muscadine anthocyanins on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2011, 59: 9506-9511.
[34]  Zheng C D, Duan Y Q, Gao J M, et al. Screening for anti-lipase properties of 37 traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 2010, 73: 319-324.
[35]  McDougall G J, Kulkarni N N, Stewart D. Berry polyphenols inhibit pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Food Chemistry, 2009, 115: 193-199.
[36]  Nakai M, Fukui Y, Asami S, et al. Inhibitory effects of oolong tea polyphenols on pancreatic lipase in vitro. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2005, 53: 4593-4598.
[37]  Jeong J Y, Jo Y H, Lee K Y, et al. Optimization of pancreatic lipase inhibition by Cudrania tricuspidata fruits using response surface methodology. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2014, 24: 2329-2333.