Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020, 8(10), 543-549
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-8-10-1
Open AccessArticle

Inhibitory Effects of Water Extracts of Longan Leaves on Mutation and Tyrosinase

Bor Sen Wang1, Horng Cherng Wu2, Lee Wen Chang2, Lan Chi Hsieh3 and Heuy Ling Chu2,

1Department of Applied Life Science and Health, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 71710, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC

2Department of Food Science & Technology, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 71710, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC

3Department of Dietetics Kaohsiung Municipal United Hospital, 80457, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC

Pub. Date: October 15, 2020

Cite this paper:
Bor Sen Wang, Horng Cherng Wu, Lee Wen Chang, Lan Chi Hsieh and Heuy Ling Chu. Inhibitory Effects of Water Extracts of Longan Leaves on Mutation and Tyrosinase. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020; 8(10):543-549. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-8-10-1


The antityrosinase and antimutation effects of longan leaves and its bioactive compounds was investigated. The water extracts of longan leaves (WLL) inhibited the mutagenicity of 2-aminoanthracene, an indirect mutagen, and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, a direct oxidative mutagen toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. WLL at 0-0.6 mg/ml displayed free radical scavenging activity, reducing power, chelating ability and protection against lipid oxidative damage. In addition, the inhibitory actions of WLL on tyrosinase activity and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages RAW 264.7 cell increased in concentration-dependent manner. According to HPLC-DAD analysis showed that epicatechin, ellagic acid and gallic acid, the major phenolic compounds, were present in WLL. The phenolic components may in part account for contributing the protective effects of WLL. On the basis of the results obtained, WLL can display biological functions and effectively protective against oxidation, mutation, tyrosinase, and inflammation.

longan leaves mutation tyrosinase oxidative stress

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Chu, H.L., Chien, J.C., Duh, P.D., “Protective effect of Cordyceps militaris against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells”, Food Chem, 129, 871-876, 2011.
[2]  Chu, H.L., Wang, B.S., Chang, L.C., Chang, L.W., Duh, P.D., “Effects of captopril on melanin formation in B16 cells”, J Food Drug Anal, 20(3), 668-673, 2012.
[3]  Lim, W.Y., Wong, C.W., “Inhibitory effect of chemical and natural anti-browning agents of polyphenol oxidase from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)”, J Food Sci Technol. 55(8), 3001-3007, 2018.
[4]  Choi, M.H., Shin, H.J., “Anti-melanogenesis effect of quercetin”, Cosmetics, 3(2), 18, 2016.
[5]  Oda Y., “Development and progress for three decades in umu test systems”, Gene Environ, 38, 24, 2016.
[6]  Makhafola, T.J., Elgorashi, E.E., McGaw,L.J., Verschaeve, L., Eloff, J.N., “The correlation between antimutagenic activity and total phenolic content of extracts of 31 plant species with high antioxidant activity” BMC Complement Altern Med, 16, 490, 2016.
[7]  Shahidi, F., Ambigaipalan, P., “Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices: Antioxidant activity and health effects - A review”, J Fun Food,18 ,820-897, 2015.
[8]  Chang, L.W., Juang, L.J., Wang, B.S., Wang, M.Y., Tai, H.M., Hung, W.J., Chen, Y.J., Huang, M.H., “Antioxidant and antityrosinase activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) twigs and root bark”, Food Chem Toxicol, 49, 785-790, 2011.
[9]  Ngamsuk, S., Huang, T.C., Hsu, J.L., “Determination of phenolic compounds, procyanidins, and antioxidant activity in processed Coffea arabica L. leaves”, Foods, 8, 389, 2019.
[10]  Mellinas, A.C., Jimenez, A., Garrigós, M.C.,“Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of cocoa bean shell waste and evaluation of its antioxidant, physicochemical and functional properties”, LWT-Food Science Technol, 127,109361, 2020.
[11]  Wang, B.S., Chang, L.W., Wu, H.C., Huang, S.L., Chu, H.L., Huang, MH., “Antioxidant and antityrosinase activity of aqueous extracts of green asparagus”, Food Chem, 127(1), 141-146, 2011.
[12]  Chu, H.L., Wang, B.S. and Duh, P.D. “Effects of selected organo-sulfur compounds on melanin formation”, J Agric Food Chem, 57(15), 7072-7077, 2009.
[13]  Wang, B.S., Chang, L.W., Kang, Z.C., Chu, H.L., Tai, H.M., Huang, M.H., “Inhibitory effects of molasses on mutation and nitric oxide production”, Food Chem, 126, 1102-1107, 2011.
[14]  Chung, Y.C., Lin, C.C., Chou, C.C., Hsu, C.P.,” The effect of Longan seed polyphenols on colorectal carcinoma cells”, Eur J Clin Invest, 40, 713-721, 2010.
[15]  Yang, D.J., Chang, Y.Y., Hsu, C.L., Liu, C.W., Lin, Y.L., Lin, Y.H., Liu, K.C., Chen, Y.C., “ Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of polyphenol-rich longan (Dimocarpus longans Lour.) flower water extract in hypercaloric-dietary rats”, J Agric Food Chem, 58, 2020-2027, 2010.
[16]  Mishra, B.B., Gautam, S., “Polyphenol oxidases: biochemical and molecular characterization, distribution, role and its control”, Enzyme Eng, 5, 1, 2016.
[17]  Kasote, D.M., Katyare, S.S., Hegde, M.V., Bae, H., “Significance of antioxidant potential of plants and its relevance to therapeutic applications’, Int J Bio Sci,11(8), 982-991, 2015.
[18]  Liguori, I., Russo, G., [...], Abete, P., “Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases”, Clin Interv Aging, 13,757-772, 2018.
[19]  Zolghadri, S., Bahrami, A., [...], Saboury, A.A., “A comprehensive review on tyrosinase inhibitors”, J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem, 34(1), 279-309, 2019.
[20]  Malekmohammad, K., Sewell, R.D.E., Rafieian-Kopaei M. “Antioxidants and atherosclerosis: Mechanistic aspects”, Biomolecules, 9(8), 301, 2019.
[21]  Ayala, A., Muñoz, M.F., Argüelles S., “Lipid peroxidation: Production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2 -nonenal”, Oxid Med Cell Longev, Article ID 360438, 2014.
[22]  Kepple, J.K., Schwarz, K., van der Goot, A.J., “Covalent modification of food proteins by plant-based ingredients (polyphenols and organosulphur compounds): A commonplace raction with novel utilization potential”, Trends Food Sci Technol, 101, 38-49, 2020.
[23]  Sassa, A., Kanemaru, Y., [...],Yasui. M. “Mutagenic consequences of cytosine alterations site-specifically embedded in the human genome”, Gene Environ, 38(1):17, 2016.
[24]  Goetz, M.E., Luch, A., “Reactive species: A cell damaging rout assisting to chemical carcinogens”, Cancer Lett, 266, 73-83, 2008.
[25]  Manosroi, A., Jantrawut, P., Akazawa, H., Akihisa, T., Manosroi, J.,” Biological activities of phenolic compounds isolated from galls of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae)”, Nat Prod Res, 24, 1915-1926, 2010.
[26]  Brüsehafer, K., Manshian, B.B., [...],Jenkins, G.J.S., “The clastogenicity of 4NQO is cell-type dependent and linked to cytotoxicity, length of exposure and p53 proficiency”, Mutagenesis, 31(2), 171-180, 2016.