Online Submission

Online submission of manuscript is now mandatory for all types of paper. Please prepare your manuscript according to the instructions for authors given below before submitting it online at If submission is completed successfully, a paper ID will be allocated to you and an e-mail acknowledgement will follow. All subsequent correspondence should be sent to the Assistant Editor, David Rain, at

Preparation of Manuscripts Manuscripts should be original (have not been published elsewhere) and written in English with a concise, straightforward style. Authors not fluent in English are advised to have their manuscript checked by a colleague with a good command of the language. The manuscript should present scientific findings which are essentially new and which have not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. Review papers are also welcomed.

1. Format: Prior to submission, authors who believe their manuscript would benefit from professional editing are encouraged to use language-editing and copyediting services. Obtaining this service is the responsibility of the author, and should be done before initial submission. A template (download) is available to guide authors in the preparation of the manuscript.

2. Length: Although there is no page limit for a Regular Paper, it is strongly suggested that a complete manuscript be no less than 5 pages and no more than 25 pages (10 pt, double-spaced, including figures, tables, and references).

3. Sections of Manuscript: Articles should be organized into the following sections: Reviews and Mini-reviews Article Title, Authors’ names and institutional affiliations, Abstract and Keywords, Introduction, Main text (divided into subheadings), Conclusions, Acknowledgements (if any), Statement of Competing Interests, List of Abbreviations (if any), References. Research Articles Article Title, Authors’ names and institutional affiliations, Abstract and Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgements (if any), Statement of Competing Interests, List of Abbreviations (if any), References.

3.1. Title (20 words or less) In general, a paper title will not exceed 20 words. It should be brief and grammatically correct and reflect the emphasis and content of the paper accurately, clearly, and concisely. Usually a paper title does not include numbers, acronyms, abbreviations or punctuations. It contains sufficient detail for indexing purposes and at the same time it is general enough for the layman to know what the paper is about.

3.2. Authors’ names and institutional affiliations This should include first and last names of all authors (without titles or qualifications), their affiliations (Department, Institute, City, Post/Zip code, Country), and email addresses. Authors’ names and affiliations should be consecutively using superscript numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.). The corresponding author should also be indicated.

3.3. Abstract and Keywords The abstract should be concise and comprehensive, about 200 words and not exceed 300 words, which give a brief introduction to the study, including the essential findings, conclusions and significance, not including references, headings or non-standard abbreviation. Usually an abstract contains three parts, Background, Methodology/Principal Findings, and Conclusions/Significance. Don’t apply such distinct headings to the abstract within the article file and don’t use any citations or specialist abbreviations.
Please suggest 5–7 keywords which can be used to describe the content of the paper. Each keyword should be kept short, one word where possible (though two and three word specialist terms are also acceptable where necessary).

3.4. Introduction In this part, the author should make out a case for the study, and provide a brief literature survey (avoid citing literature older than ten years, unless absolutely necessary), the background, the hypothesis as well as the significance of the present research.

3.5. Materials and Methods Experimental procedures should be given in sufficient detail to allow these to be replicated by other researchers. The source of the various reagents and materials used in the study should be given, where possible.

3.6. Results The results section should provide details of all of the experiments that are required to support the conclusions of the paper. There is no specific word limit for this section, but details of experiments that are peripheral to the main thrust of the article and that detract from the focus of the article should not be included. The section may be divided into subsections, each with a concise subheading. Large datasets, including raw data, should be submitted as supporting files; these are published online alongside the accepted article. We advise that the results section be written in past tense.

3.7. Discussion This section should present comprehensive analysis of the results in the light of any previous research. Discussion may also be combined with results.

3.8. Conclusions Conclusion section should bring out the significance of your research paper, show how you’ve brought closure to the research problem, and point out remaining gaps in knowledge by suggesting issues for further research.

3.9. Acknowledgements The authors should first acknowledge the source of funding for the research presented in their article followed by any personal credits.

3.10. Statement of Competing Interests Include an explicit disclosure of any competing interests (financial or others) that may have influenced the study or the conclusions drawn from the study. If none, state 'the authors have no competing interests'.

3.11. List of Abbreviations Define all non-standard abbreviations in parenthesis on their first appearance in the text as well as provide a list. Standard abbreviations need not to be included in the list.

3.12. References The reference list appears at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper (with the exception of personal communications) must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text. Only published or accepted manuscript should be included in the reference list. Papers that have been submitted but not yet accepted should not be cited. Limited citation of unpublished work should be included in the body of the text only as “unpublished data”. Citation
As you write your report, you will cite your references. A citation to a reference in the body of the text is indicated by a bracketed number corresponding to the reference number in the References section. Example: During high stress periods, individuals should focus on the situation-specific tasks rather than rely on general knowledge structures. [1]
Reference Formats
A complete reference should contain the name(s) of the author(s) and/or editor(s), the title of the article, the name of the book or conference proceedings where appropriate, and bibliographic information about the article such as the name of the publisher, the city of publication, and the page numbers. The basic concept is that the reference should be sufficiently complete so that the reader could readily find the reference and can judge the authority and objectivity of the reference.
All author names appear as Last name, Initials. For example, if Kirsten Patrick is the primary author and Alice M. Agogino is the second author, the correct appearance of the author names would be: Patrick, K., and Agogino, A.M.
Standard format
 Authors, Title(in italics), Publisher, City of Publication, Year of Publication, page numbers(if appropriate).
 1. Fogg, B.J, Persuasive technology: using computers to change what we think and do, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers,
  Boston, 2003, 30-35.
Journal articles
Standard format
 Authors, “Title of the article,”Journal name(in italics), Volume (Issue), Pages, Month Year.
 Hirsh, H., Coen, M.H., Mozer, M.C., Hasha, R. and Flanagan, J.L, “Room service, AI-style,” IEEE intelligent systems,
 14 (2). 8-19. Jul.2002.
Conference Proceedings
Standard format
 Authors, “Title of the article,” in Title of conference(in italics),Publisher, Pages.
 Leclercq, P. and Heylighen, “A. 5,8 Analogies per hour: A designer's view on analogical reasoning,” in
7th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Design, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 285-303.
Standard format
 Authors, Title of E-book(in italics),Publisher, Date of original publication.
[Format] Available: Source.
 T. Eckes, The Developmental Social Psychology of Gender, Lawrence Erlbaum, 2000.
[E-book] Available: netLibrary e-book.
Standard format
 Authors, "Title of Article," Title of Journal(in italics), Volume (Issue), pages, month year.
[Format] Available: Database Name (if appropriate), article number (if given), internet address. [Accessed date of access].
 A. Altun, "Understanding hypertext in the context of reading on the web: Language learners' experience,"
Current Issues in Education, 6(12), July 2003. [Online].
[Online]. Available: [Accessed Dec. 2, 2004].

3.13. Tables
The table title should be concise, no more than one sentence. The rest of the table legend and any footnotes should be placed below the table. Footnotes can be used to explain abbreviations.
Tables must be cell-based, such as would be produced in a spreadsheet program or in Microsoft Word. Do not provide tables as graphic objects. Tables must be no larger than one printed page (7inches x 9.5inches). Larger tables can be published as online supporting information. Bold and italics formatting will be preserved in the published version; however, more extensive formatting will be lost. Do not include color, shading, lines, rules, text boxes, tabs, returns, or pictures within the table.
All tables must be numbered consecutively (in Arabic numbers). Table headings should be placed (centered) above the table. Place tables as close as possible to where they are mentioned in the main text. All Tables should be referred to in the text as Table 1, Table 2, etc.

3.14. Figures
Figures should be as small and simple as is compatible with clarity. The goal is for figures to be comprehensible to readers in other or related disciplines, and to assist their understanding of the paper. Unnecessary figures and parts (panels) of figures should be avoided: data presented in small tables or histograms, for instance, can generally be stated briefly in the text instead. Avoid unnecessary complexity, coloring and excessive detail.
All illustrations should be original drawings or photographic prints of originals. Photographs should be glossy prints. Photocopies are often not good enough and should be avoided. All illustrations must be numbered consecutively, as Fig. 1, Fig. 2. Center figure captions beneath the figure. Do not assemble figures at the back of your article, but place them as close as possible to where they are mentioned in the main text. No part of a figure should go beyond the typing area.

3.15. Figure Legends
The aim of the figure legend should be to describe the key messages of the figure, but the figure should also be discussed in the text. Each legend should have a concise title of no more than 15 words. The legend itself should be succinct, while still explaining all symbols and abbreviations. Avoid lengthy descriptions of methods.

3.15. Equations
Number equations consecutively. Equation numbers, within parentheses, are to position flush right, as in Eq. (1) or equation (1), using a right tab stop.

y = f(x) (1)

Note that the formula is centered using a center tab stop. Be sure that the symbols in your formula have been defined before or immediately following the equation. Use “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1)”, not “(1)”, in the sentences.
Notation. Notation must be legible, clear, compact, and consistent with standard usage. In general, acronyms should be defined at first use.
Variables and Vectors. Set single-letter variables in italics (e.g. m). Set vectors in boldface (e.g. E). Derivative "d," abbreviations, and multi-letter identifiers should be set in roman (plain) type (e.g. cos, ∫...dx).

4. Submission self-checklist
Before submitting your manuscript online, please check that all style and format requirements have been carefully followed.
» English spelling and punctuations are used throughout the paper.
» The paper is original, not submitted anywhere else.
» The length of the paper is commensurate with content.
» The title and headings are brief and catchy.
» Names and affiliations (including postal codes) of all authors are correct and complete.
» Figures are of sufficient quality for printing, with clear resolution of detail.
» Abstract and keywords are provided.
» All table captions and figure legends are provided.
» Tables/Figures are properly placed and numbered with brief titles/ captions.
» References are in standard style.

Publishing process

The following sections summarize the journals' publishing processes and describe how manuscript are handled from submission to publication. At all stages of the process, you can access the online submission system and find the status of your manuscript.

1) Author submits a manuscript

2) Journal editor screens manuscript
Within one week of being submitted, each journal paper undergoes a preliminary review by the journal editor. The journal editor decides among three options for routing the paper:
The journal editor decides among three options for routing the paper:
Send out for review.
The manuscript meets the basic requirements of SciEP. At least two reviewers will be located by the journal editor, who will send each reviewer a copy of the paper.

Return for revision If your manuscript has not passed the preliminary review, the review comment will be returned to you for revision.

Rejection without peer review While manuscript have to go through the peer review process in order to be published, they can be rejected without peer review. For high-impact, general science journals, the majority of submitted papers may be rejected in this manner. While this may appear surprising or disturbing, it is essential to understand the underlying reasons and the inevitability of this undesired aspect of the research publication process.
There could be many reasons for rejection without review:
 1. Content of the article is not within the scope of the journal.
 2. Non-conformity with journal style, format or guidelines.
 3. Duplication or large overlap with existing work or apparent plagiarism.
 4. Results are not novel or significant enough; lead to only an incremental advance in field.
 5. Article is too specialized/in-depth or superficial.
 6. Limited interest to journal target audience.
 7. Poor quality of research.
 8. Results or interpretation are too preliminary or speculative.
 9. Lack of clarity/conciseness in presentation.

3) Manuscript is peer reviewed

4) Journal editor/editorial board decides whether to publish
Once peer review has been completed, the original author(s) of the article will modify their submission in line with the reviewers' comments, and this is repeated until the editor is satisfied.
Review Decisions by Reviewers and Editors:
1. Accept in present form
The reviewer will decide that the manuscript is ready for publication in its present form when at least two reviewers are in agreement. The associate editor will sum up the results of the review and report them to the chief editors. The secretary will then send an acceptance letter to the author on behalf of the chief editors. The paper will be moved to final editing for online publication.
2. Revision Required
The reviewer will decide that the paper is not ready for publication and needs revision when at least two reviewers are in agreement. The associate editor will send the reviewers’ comments to the author for revision. The author should include with his(her) resubmitted version a new cover letter that includes a point-by-point response to the reviewers' and editors' comments, including an explanation of how you have altered your manuscript in response to these, and an estimation of the length of the revised version with figures/tables.
3. Declined final
The reviewers will decide that the paper is inappropriate for publication when at least two reviewers are in agreement. No revisions will be requested for further consideration. The paper may not be resubmitted without substantial revision.

5) Copy Editing and Typesetting
Copy editing seeks to ensure that an article conforms to the journal's house style, that all of the referencing and labelling is correct, and that there are no spelling or grammatical errors. Typesetting deals with the appearance of the article — layouts, fonts, headings etc., both for print and online publication.
Copy editing and typesetting are carried out by copyeditors (also called subeditors), who refine it so that the text and figures are readable and clear to those outside the immediate field; choose keywords to maximize visibility in online searches as well as suitable for indexing services; and ensure that the papers conform to house style. The copyeditors are happy to give advice to authors whose native language is not English, and will edit those papers with special care.

6) Proof Reading
The typeset first proofs are sent to the author electronically as a PDF. Corrections to the proofs should be minor – authors should not rewrite or make substantial additions.

7) Printing
The final text and cover proofs will undergo a thorough editorial review before they are accepted and sent to print. All papers are published in the print edition and, in PDF and HTML format, in the online edition of the journal, in full.

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