Journal of Innovations in Teaching and Learning
ISSN (Print): ISSN Pending ISSN (Online): 2945-4638 Website: Editor-in-chief: Laila S. Lomibao
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Journal of Innovations in Teaching and Learning. 2024, 4(1), 1-6
DOI: 10.12691/jitl-4-1-1
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Procedural Knowledge-to-Conceptual Knowledge or Conceptual Knowledge-to-Procedural Knowledge: Which Order of Knowledge is Better for Conceptual Understanding and Procedural Fluency

Gliselle Faith L. Asilo-Ebisa1, and Laila S. Lomibao2

1Mathematics Department, Corpus Christi School, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

2Department of Mathematics Education, University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

Pub. Date: January 16, 2024

Cite this paper:
Gliselle Faith L. Asilo-Ebisa and Laila S. Lomibao. Procedural Knowledge-to-Conceptual Knowledge or Conceptual Knowledge-to-Procedural Knowledge: Which Order of Knowledge is Better for Conceptual Understanding and Procedural Fluency. Journal of Innovations in Teaching and Learning. 2024; 4(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/jitl-4-1-1


This study explored the effectiveness of the two orders of instruction (conceptual-to-procedural knowledge and conceptual-to-procedural knowledge) to grade 10 students’ conceptual understanding and procedural fluency. A quasi-experimental control-group pretest-posttest design was used. The control group experienced a conceptual-to-procedural order of instruction which is the usual practice in the school while the experimental group experienced a procedural-to-conceptual order of instruction. Quade’s ANCOVA, a non-parametric statistical tool, was used to examine if there is a significant difference between the student’s conceptual understanding and procedural fluency when grouped according to order of instruction. A non-parametric statistical tool was utilized because the data was found to be not normally distributed. The pretest scores serve as a covariate in Quade’s ANCOVA to reduce the error variance and to eliminate systematic bias. Results showed that, there is no significant difference in the students’ conceptual understanding and procedural fluency in measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion, and measures of position when grouped according to the order of instruction. Moreover, students under the conceptual-to-procedural knowledge and procedural-to-conceptual knowledge performed similarly. Thus, the researchers recommend the interchangeable use of order of instruction. Since there is a bidirectional relationship between conceptual and procedural knowledge, the teachers are recommended not to stick with just one order of instruction but to use it iteratively.

conceptual knowledge procedural knowledge conceptual understanding procedural fluency Quade’s ANCOVA

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