American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(12), 1710-1714
DOI: 10.12691/education-6-12-18
Open AccessArticle

Consensual Cooperative-Learning: A New Method to Harmonize the Learning of Complex Knowledge

M.Dahmani Fathallah1, Sayed H. Rajab2, Hashem A. Al Musawi2, Aisha Al Foderi2, Farah Al Qabandi2, Fatma Al Saad2, Haya Al Kanderi2, Mashail Al Obaid2, Samar Al Abyoki2, Fuad Al Habeeb2, Fuad Al Hassan2, Hameeda Al Maalki2, Hessa Al Noaimi2, Maha Al Shaalan2, Mohammed Al Mannai2 and Suha Abdullah2

1Department of Life Sciences, College of Graduate Studies, Arabian Gulf University

2Department of Innovation & Technology Management, PhD in Innovation Management Program, College of Graduate Studies, Arabian Gulf University

Pub. Date: December 28, 2018

Cite this paper:
M.Dahmani Fathallah, Sayed H. Rajab, Hashem A. Al Musawi, Aisha Al Foderi, Farah Al Qabandi, Fatma Al Saad, Haya Al Kanderi, Mashail Al Obaid, Samar Al Abyoki, Fuad Al Habeeb, Fuad Al Hassan, Hameeda Al Maalki, Hessa Al Noaimi, Maha Al Shaalan, Mohammed Al Mannai and Suha Abdullah. Consensual Cooperative-Learning: A New Method to Harmonize the Learning of Complex Knowledge. American Journal of Educational Research. 2018; 6(12):1710-1714. doi: 10.12691/education-6-12-18


A harmonized learning outcome is eagerly needed when it comes to teaching complex knowledge, particularly concepts that can be contingent on different perceptions and understanding. No teaching method is currently available, however, about achieving a harmonized learning outcome of puzzling knowledge. To fill this educational gap, we developed an incrementally innovative learning-centered method; the consensual cooperative-learning method (CCL) and tested it on a group of executives enrolled in an innovation management PhD program. This paper describes the CCL method and highlights the potential of combining and building upon self-learning methods in achieving harmonized acquisition of sophisticated knowledge.

learning method self-learning cooperative learning complex knowledge consensual learning

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 1


[1]  Vygotsky, L.S., Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes (Cole M., John-Steiner V., Scribner, S. & Souberman, E. Eds.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. (1978).
[2]  Bovill, C., Morss, K., & Bulley, C.J., Should students participate in curriculum design? Discussions arising from a first year curriculum design project and a literature review. Pedagogic Research in Maximizing Education. 3(2), 17-26. (2009).
[3]  Anderson, T., & McGreal, R., Disruptive pedagogies and technologies in universities. Educational Technology & Society. 15, 380-389. (2012).
[4]  Boyer, S.L., Edmondson, D.R., Artis, A.B. & Fleming, D., Self-Directed Learning: A Tool for Lifelong Learning. Journal of Marketing Education 36 (1), 20-32. (2014).
[5]  Allen, D., & Tanner, K. D., Putting the horse back in front of the cart: Using visions and decisions about high-quality learning experiences to drive course design. CBE Life Sciences Education, 6 (2), 85-89. (2007).
[6]  Bidabadi, N.S, Isfahani A.N., Rouhollahi, A. & khalili, R., Effective teaching methods in higher education: requirements and barriers. Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism 4 (4), 170-178. (2016).
[7]  Knowles, M.S. Self-Directed Learning: A Guide for Learners and Teachers. Engelwood, NJ: Cambridge Prentice Hall. (1975)
[8]  Cook-Sather, A., Student-faculty partnership in explorations of pedagogical practice as threshold concept in academic development. International Journal for Academic Development, 19(3), 186-198. (2014).
[9]  Dalrymple, S.E., Auerbach, A.J. & Schussler, E., Taking a Community Approach to Curriculum Change. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. 11(2). (2017).
[10]  Slavin, R E., Cooperative Learning Review of Educational Research, 1980.
[11]  McKeachie, W.J., Research on college teaching: The historical background., Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(2), 189-200. (1990).
[12]  Gillies, R.M., Cooperative Learning: Review of Research and Practice. Australian Journal of Teacher Education. 41 (3), 39-54. (2016).
[13]  Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., Beyond the Classroom and into the Community: The role of the teacher in expanding the pedagogy of cooperation. In The teacher’s role in implementing cooperative learning in the classroom, (Eds) Gillies, R.M., Ashman A.F., Terwel, J. Springer, New York, NY, USA, (2008).
[14]  Bernard, Z., Here's how technology is shaping the future of education. Business Insider, from: (2017).
[15]  Bozeman, B., Technology transfer and public policy: a review of research and theory. Research Policy, 29 (4-5), 627-655. (2000).
[16]  Zhao, L., & Reisman, A., Toward Meta research on technology transfer. IEEE Transactions on engineering management, 39 (1), 13-21. (1992).
[17]  Makewa, L.N., Gitonga, D., Ngussa, B., Njoroge, S. & Kuboja1 J., Frustration Factor in Group Collaborative Learning Experiences. American Journal of Educational Research, 2(11A), 16-22. (2014).
[18]  Edmondson, D. R., Boyer, S. L., & Artis, A.B., Self-directed learning: A meta-analytic review of adult learning constructs. International Journal of Education Research, 7(1), 40-48. (2012).
[19]  Baloche, L. & Brody, C.M., Cooperative learning: exploring challenges, crafting innovations. Journal of Education for Teaching International research and pedagogy. 43 (3). (2017)
[20]  Roxa, T., & Maertensson, K., Significant conversations and significant networks: exploring the backstage of the teaching arena. Studies in Higher Education, 34(5), 547-559. (2009)
[21]  Van Lacum, E.B., Ossevoort, M.A. & Goedhart, M. J., A teaching strategy with a focus on argumentation to improve undergraduate students’ ability to read research articles. CBE Life Sciences Education, 13(2), 253-264. (2014).
[22]  Laal, A.M. & Ghodsi, S.M., Benefits of collaborative learning, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 31, 486-490. (2012).
[23]  Wahab, S.A., Rose, R.C., & Osman, S.I.W., Defining the concepts of technology and technology transfer: A Literature Analysis. International Business Research, 5(1). (2011)
[24]  Iureaa, C., Neacşub, I., Georgiana Saftac, C. & Suditu, M., The Study of the Relation between the Teaching Methods and the Learning Styles: The Impact upon the Students’ Academic Conduct. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 11, 256-260. (2011).
[25]  Smith, R.O. & Dirkx, J.M., Using Consensus Groups in Online Learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 25-35. (2007).