International Journal of Physics
ISSN (Print): 2333-4568 ISSN (Online): 2333-4576 Website: Editor-in-chief: B.D. Indu
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International Journal of Physics. 2024, 12(2), 68-76
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-12-2-2
Open AccessArticle

Universe, a Singular Quantum State and It’s Expansion

M. Khoshsima1,

1Physics Department, Adelphi University

Pub. Date: April 11, 2024

Cite this paper:
M. Khoshsima. Universe, a Singular Quantum State and It’s Expansion. International Journal of Physics. 2024; 12(2):68-76. doi: 10.12691/ijp-12-2-2


Quantum cosmology has a quantum approach toward understanding of the universe. Physicists have proposed various approach toward understanding Universe as a quantum state. In this paper the intention is to introduce the Big Bang as a simplified “singular quantum state” with internal operators. This singular quantum state by virtue of quantum mechanical operators, produce the first physical “spacetime particle,” being physical universe at the moment of its inception. Energy and “duplication” operators energize and multiply spacetime particles and hence expansion of the universe. The “charge-mass’ operators convert the energized spacetime particles into massive fermions in different epochs. Spacetime particles are the building block of not only the universe, but also contain masses and radiation within the universe in the form of fundamental particles. The charge-mass operator mixing will lead to the existence of quark’s partner and anti-partner. It will also lead to the existence of not-matter particles. According to this theory, there arise four versions of matter, namely, Matter (particle, particle partner, anti-particle and anti-particle partner) accompanied with the analog of these particles in the Not-matter version. In this paper, not a rigorous mathematical, rather, a simple intuitive approach is used toward understanding the nature of the universe and the fundamental particles generated.

Big Bang is introduced as a simple quantum state. Internal space and time operators change this state into spacetime particle. Energy and multiplication operators energies and expand the spacetime particle. Charge-mass operators convert some of the internal energy of the spacetime particles into massive fermions. The charge-mass operators lead to the existence of massive fermion particles particle partners anti-particles and anti-particle partners and not-massive version of these. There is a proposal that quantum state of the universe prior to expansion is a six dimensional space-time. The spacetime particle quantization is estimated by Planck’s natural constants

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