World Journal of Preventive Medicine
ISSN (Print): 2379-8823 ISSN (Online): 2379-8866 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
World Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2014, 2(1), 5-9
DOI: 10.12691/jpm-2-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Knowledge, Attitude and Use of Clinical Preventive Services among Patients Attending the General Out-patient Clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in South-south Nigeria

Seiyefa Funakpa Brisibe1, , Best Ordinioha2 and Precious Kalamba Gbeneol3

1Department of Family Medicine, Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri - Bayelsa State, Nigeria

2Department of Community Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

3Department of Medical Services, University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Pub. Date: December 29, 2014

Cite this paper:
Seiyefa Funakpa Brisibe, Best Ordinioha and Precious Kalamba Gbeneol. Knowledge, Attitude and Use of Clinical Preventive Services among Patients Attending the General Out-patient Clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in South-south Nigeria. World Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2014; 2(1):5-9. doi: 10.12691/jpm-2-1-2


Non-communicable diseases are now very prevalent in Nigeria, but the uptake of clinical preventive services (CPS) that have been shown to be very effective in their control has been very poor. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and use of the services among patients attending a general out-patient clinic, in a tertiary hospital in Port Harcourt, south-south Nigeria. A cross-sectional study design was used, and the data for the study was collected using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 422 questionnaires were administered and analyzed. The respondents had an average age of 36.04 ±1.99 years; majority had at least secondary school education (90.05%), were Christians of Pentecostal denomination (50.95%) and self employed (52.13%). Most (76.30%) of the respondents were aware of at least one form of CPS. All believed that CPS are effective in the prevention of non-communicable diseases, but only 18.25% believed that CPS alone would be enough to prevent the diseases. The religious denomination of the respondents significantly affected their conviction in the effectiveness of CPS (p-value = 0.000). The respondents that did not access the services gave reasons that include believe that the services are not very effective in preventing the diseases (39.31%) and the fear of positive test result (26.59%). The awareness of the respondents of CPS is high, but the uptake of the services is poor, due to factors that include religious denomination of the respondents. Deliberate effort is therefore required to increase the uptake of the services.

non-communicable diseases clinical preventive services knowledge attitude use south-south Nigeria

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Nigerian Heart Foundation, Federal Ministry of Health and Social Services. Health behavior monitor among Nigerian adult population. Lagos. Nigerian Heart Foundation, 2003.
[2]  Ordinioha B, Brisibe SF. The prevalence of hypertension and its modifiable risk factors amongst traditional chiefs of an oil bearing community in south-south Nigeria. Sahel Medical Journal 2013; 14: 24-27.
[3]  World Health Organization. The global burden of disease: 2004 update. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008.
[4]  Unachukwu CN, Agomuoh DI, Alasia DD. Pattern of noncommunicable diseases among medical admissions in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 2008; 11 (1): 14-17.
[5]  Odenigbo CU, Oguejiofor OC. Pattern of medical admissions at the Federal Medical center Asaba: a two year review. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 2009; 12 (4): 395-397.
[6]  Olarinde OJ, Olatunji OY. Pattern of deaths in medical wards of a rurally situated tertiary health institution, Ido‑Ekiti, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 2014; 17: 237-240.
[7]  Goudge J, Gilson L, Russel S, Gumede T, Mills A. Affordability, availability and acceptability barriers to health care for the chronically ill: Longitudinal case studies from South Africa BMC Health Services Research 2009, 9:75.
[8]  World Health Organization. Current and future long-term needs. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002.
[9]  Strong K, Mathers C, Leeder S, Beaglehole R. Preventing chronic diseases: how many lives can we save? Lancet 2005; 366: 1578-1582.
[10]  Salinsky E. Clinical preventive services: when is the juice worth the squeeze? National Health Policy Forum Issue Brief – No. 806. 2005.
[11]  Babatunde S, Ikimalo J. Uptake of cervical cancer screening: awareness, willingness and practice among antenatal clinic attendees in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Port Harcourt Medical Journal 2010; 4: 149-154.
[12]  Woolf SH, Atkins D. The evolving role of prevention in health care: Contributions of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2001; 20, suppl. 3: 13-20.
[13]  Kotler P, Roberto EL. Social marketing: Strategies for changing public behaviour. New York. Free Press. 1989: 10-36.
[14]  Ordinioha B. Social marketing of insecticide-treated bed net for malaria control in a semi-urban community in South-South Nigeria. Port Harcourt Med J 2007; 1: 145-150.
[15]  Aboyeji PA, Ijaiya MA, Jimoh AA. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical smear as a screening procedure for cervical cancer in Ilorin, Nigeria. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol 2004; 21: 114-117.
[16]  Ahluwalia JI, Gibson CA, Kenney E, Wallace DD, Resnicow K. Smoking as a vital sign. J Gen Intern Med 1999; 14: 402-408.
[17]  Grilli R, Ramsay C, Minozzi S. Mass media interventions: effects on health services utilisation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002; (1): CD000389.
[18]  Norman P, Conner M: The role of social cognition models in predicting attendance at health checks. Psychol Health 1993, 8(6):447-462.
[19]  Adogame A: HIV/AIDS support and African pentecostalism: the case of the Redeemed Christian Church of God (RCCG). J Health Psychol 2007; 12(3):475-484.
[20]  Wanyama J, Castelnuovo B, Wandera B, Mwebaze P, Kambugu A, Bangsberg DR, Kamya MR: Belief in divine healing can be a barrier to antiretroviral therapy adherence in Uganda. AIDS 2007, 21(11):1486-1487.
[21]  Yanek LR, Becker DM, Moy TF, Gittelsohn J, Koffman DM. Project Joy: Faith Based Cardiovascular Health Promotion for African American Women. Public Health Reports 2001; 116: 68-81.
[22]  Zimmerman GL, Olsen CG, Bosworth MF. A ‘stages of change’ approach to helping patients change behavior. Am Fam Physician. 2000; 1; 61(5):1409-1416.
[23]  Norman P, Fitter M. Intention to attend a health screening appointment: some implications for general practice. Counselling Psychology Quarterly 1989, 2(3): 261-272.
[24]  Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. A step-by-step guide to delivering clinical preventive services: a systems approach. Washington DC. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2002.
[25]  Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Healthy Examination, “The Periodic Health Examination,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 1979; 121: 1193-1254.
[26]  World Health Organization/ UNAIDS. UNAIDS/WHO policy statement on HIV testing. WHO/UNAIDS; 2004.
[27]  Hughes JR. Motivating and helping smokers to stop smoking. J Gen Intern Med 2003; 18: 1053-1057.
[28]  Cameron A, Roubos I, Ewen M, Mantel-Teeuwisse AK, Leufkens HG, Laing RO. Differences in the availability of medicines for chronic and acute conditions in the public and private sectors of developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 2011; 89: 412-421.
[29]  Ottersen T, Norheim OF. Making fair choices on the path to universal health coverage. Bull World Health Organ 2014; 92: 389.