Journal of Physical Activity Research
ISSN (Print): 2576-1919 ISSN (Online): 2574-4437 Website: Editor-in-chief: Peter Hart
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Journal of Physical Activity Research. 2017, 2(2), 73-79
DOI: 10.12691/jpar-2-2-2
Open AccessArticle

A Cluster Analysis and Validation of Health-Related Fitness Tests in College Students

Ryan D. Burns1, , You Fu2, Timothy A. Brusseau1 and Nora Constantino2

1Department of Health, Kinesiology, and Recreation, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA

2School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, USA

Pub. Date: October 11, 2017

Cite this paper:
Ryan D. Burns, You Fu, Timothy A. Brusseau and Nora Constantino. A Cluster Analysis and Validation of Health-Related Fitness Tests in College Students. Journal of Physical Activity Research. 2017; 2(2):73-79. doi: 10.12691/jpar-2-2-2


Because health-related fitness consists of several domains, understanding clustering of scores from a testing battery can help practitioners derive exercise programs. The purpose of this study was to explore the clustering of health-related fitness test scores in college students and to validate the solution against criterion measures. Participants were college students (Mean age = 19.2 ±0.6 years; N = 523; 342 females, 181 males) recruited from a university in the southwestern U.S. The health-related fitness assessments consisted of BMI, estimated VO2 Peak from the Astrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer test, and a standard push-up test. Criterion measures consisted of DXA-assessed percent body fat (%BF), measured VO2 Peak from a maximal treadmill test, and a 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM) bench press score. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to derive groupings. One-way ANOVA tests were used to explore the differences among the derived cluster groups on each criterion measure. Six cluster groups were formed representing various fitness “phenotypes” (Pseudo-F = 179.7). The cluster groups differed in %BF (F(5, 517) = 44.6, p < 0.001, eta-squared = 0.31), measured VO2 Peak (F(5, 517) = 49.7, p < 0.001, eta-squared = 0.33), and 1-RM bench press scores (F(5, 517) = 17.0, p < 0.001, eta-squared = 0.12), providing validation evidence. Six cluster groups were formed from a health-related fitness test battery in college students that were validated against criterion measures of health-related fitness. The cluster groups can be used to inform current fitness status and for derivation of exercise programs.

exercise fitness health young adult

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