Journal of Physical Activity Research
ISSN (Print): 2576-1919 ISSN (Online): 2574-4437 Website: Editor-in-chief: Peter Hart
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Physical Activity Research. 2017, 2(1), 25-31
DOI: 10.12691/jpar-2-1-5
Open AccessArticle

Acute Metabolic and Enjoyment Responses of Three Walking Protocols

Jermaine B. Mitchell1, , Jonathan E. Wingo2, Mark T. Richardson2, Robert L. Herron2 and Phillip Bishop3

1Department of Counseling, FCS, & Kinesiology, University of Montevallo, Montevallo, AL, Unites States of America

2Department of Kinesiology, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, United States of America

3Department of Health Professions, Liberty University, Lynchburg, VA, United States of America

Pub. Date: April 22, 2017

Cite this paper:
Jermaine B. Mitchell, Jonathan E. Wingo, Mark T. Richardson, Robert L. Herron and Phillip Bishop. Acute Metabolic and Enjoyment Responses of Three Walking Protocols. Journal of Physical Activity Research. 2017; 2(1):25-31. doi: 10.12691/jpar-2-1-5


Encouraging physical activity is a key component of public health. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that interval walking would produce higher oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and similar enjoyment responses during and following exercise compared to continuous walking. Ten healthy adults (4 women, 6 men; mean age = 24 ± 5 years) completed the following 3 walking bouts in counterbalanced order and equated for total volume (90 MET·min): 1) 30 min of low-moderate continuous walking (3 METs; ~ 4.8 km/h), 2) 24 min and 24 s of interval walking (IW1) with cycles of 30 s:60 s of high-moderate (5 METs; ~ 6.4 km/h):low-moderate intensities, and 3) 26 min and 20 s of interval walking (IW2) with cycles of 30 s:120 s of high-moderate:low-moderate intensities. Accumulated O2 uptake during exercise was higher during IW2 (28,232 ± 2,782 mL) compared to IW1 (26,561 ± 2,685 mL; p = 0.03) and continuous walking (24,500 ± 2,427 mL; p = 0.001), and higher during IW1 than during continuous walking (p = 0.001). EPOC over 20 min was higher after IW1 (1,268 ± 117 mL O2) compared to continuous walking (892 ± 73 mL; p = 0.04); the 2 interval walking protocols were not different (IW2: 1,174 ± 178 mL; p > 0.05). Exercise enjoyment before, during, and after exercise did not differ among the walking protocols (all p > 0.05). Interval walking elicited greater V̇O2 and EPOC in shorter total durations of exercise compared to continuous walking of a similar enjoyment and volume.

EPOC interval walking aerobic exercise body fat affect adherence

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Ainsworth, B.E., Haskell, W.L., Whitt, M.C., Irwin, M.L., Swartz, A.M., Strath, S.J., O'Brien, W.L., Bassett, Jr. D.R., Schmitz, K.H., Emplaincourt, P.O., Jacobs, Jr D.R., and Leon, A.S. (2000). Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32(9): S498-S504.
[2]  Ainsworth, B.E., Haskell, W.L., Herrman, S.D., Meckes, N., Bassett, Jr D.R., Tudor-locke, C., Greer, J.L., Vezina, J., Whitt-Glover, M., and Leon, A.S. (2011). 2011 Compendium of physical activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43(8):1575-1581.
[3]  American College of Sports Medicine, (2013). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD and Philadelphia, PA.
[4]  Balke, B., and Ware R.W. (1959). An experimental study of physical fitness of Air Force personnel. United States Armed Forces Medical Journal, 10(6):675-688.
[5]  Booth, F.W., Gordon, S.E., Carlson, C.J., and Hamilton, M.T. (2000). Waging war on modern chronic diseases: primary prevention through exercise biology. Journal of Applied Physiology, 88(2): 774-787.
[6]  Borg, G.A. (1982). Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 14(5): 377-381.
[7]  Børsheim, E., and Bahr, R. (2003). Effect of exercise intensity, duration and mode on post-exercise oxygen consumption. Sports Medicine, 33(14): 1037-1060.
[8]  Burgomaster, K.A., Heigenhauser, G.J., and Gibala, M.J. (2006). Effect of short-term sprint interval training on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism during exercise and time-trial performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 100(6): 2041-2047.
[9]  Burgomaster, K.A., Hughes, S.C., Heigenhauser, G.J., Bradwell, S.N., and Gibala MJ. (2005). Six sessions of sprint interval training increases muscle oxidative potential and cycle endurance capacity in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 98(6): 1985-1990.
[10]  Campbell, S.C., Moffatt, R.J., and Kushnick, M.R. (2011). Continuous and intermittent walking alters HDL 2-C and LCATa. Atherosclerosis, 218(2):524-529.
[11]  Carpenter, T.M. (1948). Tables, factors, and formulas for computing respiratory exchange and biological transformations of energy. 4th ed. Publication 303C. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute of Washington.
[12]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013). Adult participation in aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activities - United States, 2011. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report, 62(17): 326-330.
[13]  Chan, H.H., and Burns, S.F. (2013). Oxygen consumption, substrate oxidation, and blood pressure following sprint interval exercise. Applied Physiology Nutrition & Metabolism, 38(2): 182-187.
[14]  Ekelund, U., Sepp, H., Brage, S., Becker, W., Jakes, R., Hennings, M., and Wareham, N.J. (2006). Criterion-related validity of the last 7-day, short form of the international physical activity questionnaire in Swedish adults. Public Health Nutrition, 9(2): 258-265.
[15]  Ekkekakis, P., Hall, E.E., VanLanduyt, L.M., and Petruzzello, S.J. (2000). Walking in (affective) circles: can short walks enhance affect? Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23(3): 245-275.
[16]  Gibala, M.J. (2007). High-intensity interval training: a time-efficient strategy for health promotion? Current Sports Medicine Reports. 6(4): 211-213.
[17]  Jackson, A.S., and Pollock, M.L. (1985). Practical assessment of body composition. Physician & Sports medicine, 13(5):76, 80; 82-90.
[18]  Little, J.P., Safdar, A., Wilkin, G.P., Tarnopolsky, M.A., and Gibala MJ. (2010). A practical model of low-volume high-intensity interval training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle: potential mechanisms. Journal of Physiology, 588(6): 1011-1022..
[19]  Masuki, S., Mori, M., Tabara, Y., Miki, T., Sakurai, A., Morikawa, M., Miyagawa, K., Higuchi, K., and Nose, H. (2010). Vasopressin V1a receptor polymorphism and interval walking training effects in middle-aged and older people. Hypertension, 55(3): 747-754.
[20]  Matthews, J.N., Altman, D.G., Campbell, M.J., and Royston, P. (1990). Analysis of serial measurements in medical research. British Medical Journal, 300(6719): 230-235.
[21]  Morikawa, M. (2011). Physical fitness and indices of lifestyle-related diseases before and after interval walking training in middle-aged and older males and females. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(3): 216-224.
[22]  Nemoto, K., Gen-no, H., Masuki, S., Okazaki, K., and Nose, H. (2007). Effects of high-intensity interval walking training on physical fitness and blood pressure in middle-aged and older people. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 82: 803-811.
[23]  Nose, H., Morikawa, M., Masuki, S., Miyagawa, K., Kamijo, Y., and Gen-no, H. (2012). Exercise training based on individual physical fitness and interval walking training to prevent lifestyle-related diseases in middle-aged and older people. Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine, 1(1): 65-71.
[24]  Nybo, L., Sundstrup, E., Jakobsen, M.D., Mohr, M., Hornstrup, T., Simonsen, L., Bülow, J., Randers, M.B., Nielsen, J.J., Aagaard, P., and Krustrup, P. (2010). High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(10): 1951-1958.
[25]  Pollack, M.L., Schmidt, D.H., and Jackson, A.S. (1980). Measurement of cardio-respiratory fitness and body composition in the clinical setting. Comprehensive Therapy, 6(9): 12-27.
[26]  Potteiger, J.A., Koch, A.J., Kuphal, K.E., and Fisher, D.H. (2001). Effects of intermittent and continuous exercise on energy expenditure, substrate utilization, and RMR in Women. Clinical Exercise Physiology, 3(3): 137-143.
[27]  Pronk, N.P., Crouse, S.F., and Rohack, J. (1995). Maximal exercise and acute mood response in women. Physiology and Behavior, 57(1): 1-4.
[28]  Oliveira, B.R., Slama, F.A., Deslandes, A.C., Furtado, E.S., and Santos, T.M. (2013). Continuous and high-intensity interval training: which promotes higher pleasure? PLOS one, 8(11): 1-6.
[29]  Sawashita, J., Onitsuka, S., Gen-no, H., Ishikawa, S., Iino, F., Tateishi, N., Murakami, T., Seki, Y., Nagaiwa, T., Hanaoka, M., Hama, S., Nose, H., and Higuchi, K. (2009). Effects of mild calorie restriction and high-intensity interval walking in middle-aged and older overweight Japanese. Experimental Gerontology, 44(10): 666-675.
[30]  Sedlock, D.A., Fissinger, J.A., and Melby, C.L. (1989). Effect of exercise intensity and duration on postexercise energy expenditure. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 21(6): 662-666.
[31]  Selfridge, N.J. (2012). High-intensity interval training: a sprint or nine saves time? Integrative Medicine Alert. 15(8): 88-91.
[32]  Simpson, M.E., Serdula, M., Galuska, D.A., Gillespie, C., Donehoo, R., Macera, C., and Mack, K. (2003). Walking trends among US adults - the behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 1987-2000. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25(2): 95-100.
[33]  Stanley, D.M., and Cumming, J. (2010a). Are we having fun yet? Testing the effects of imagery use on the affective and enjoyment responses to acute moderate exercise. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11(6): 582-590.
[34]  Stanley, D.M., and Cumming, J. (2010b). Not just how one feels, but what one images? The effects of imagery use on affective responses to moderate exercise. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 8(4): 343-359.
[35]  Townsend, J.R., Stout, J.R., Morton, A.B., Jajtner, A.R., Gonzalez, A.M., Wells, A.J., Mangine, G.T., McCormack, W.P., Emerson, N.S., Robinson, E.H., and Hoffman, J.R.. (2013). Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) following multiple effort sprint and moderate aerobic exercise. Kinesiology, 45(1): 16-21.
[36]  Treasure, D.C., and Newbery, D.M. (1998). Relationship between self-efficacy, exercise intensity, and feeling states in a sedentary population during and following an acute bout of exercise. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 20(1): 1-11.
[37]  Tritter, A., Fitzgeorge, L., Cramp, A., Valiulis, P., and Prapavessis, H. (2013). Self-efficacy and affect responses to Sprint Interval Training. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 14(6): 886-890.
[38]  Williams, D.M. (2008). Exercise, Affect, and Adherence: An Integrated Model and a Case for Self-Paced Exercise. Journal of Sport Exercise Psychology, 30(5): 471-496.