Journal of City and Development
ISSN (Print): ISSN Pending ISSN (Online): ISSN Pending Website: https://www.sciepub.com/journal/jcd Editor-in-chief: Guangming Yu
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of City and Development. 2022, 4(1), 33-47
DOI: 10.12691/jcd-4-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Placenta Communication Theory (PLACOT): A New Perspective on Communication in Housing Development

Felix Mumbi Chilufya1, , Elijah M. Bwalya2 and Francis Simui1

1Institute of Distance Education (IDE), University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

2Department of Mass Communication, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

Pub. Date: September 14, 2022

Cite this paper:
Felix Mumbi Chilufya, Elijah M. Bwalya and Francis Simui. Placenta Communication Theory (PLACOT): A New Perspective on Communication in Housing Development. Journal of City and Development. 2022; 4(1):33-47. doi: 10.12691/jcd-4-1-4

Abstract

Housing forms a basic fundamental human need. It has evolved from rudimental to complex structures that sustain human life effectively. In modern periods, global population expansion has created challenges in the development of housing. Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia, has equally experienced a massive population expansion since the nation’s independence in 1964 putting a pressure on the need for housing. However observation indicates that the mushrooming of settlements abrogates stipulated building regulations of the Town Planning authority. The safety and health tenets stipulated in the Urban and Regional Planning Act of 2015 are flouted with impunity. This calls into question whether these stipulated building regulations are communicated to housing developers. This study therefore aimed at assessing the communication dynamics that exist between Lusaka Town Planning Authority (LTPA) and Unauthorised Housing Developers (UHD) in selected townships of the city. It focused first on determining the extent to which housing developers acquire building permission and then evaluated the content of Building Regulation Messages (BRM). The dissemination of BRM by LTPA and their decoding among UHD were the final enquiries. The study utilised the multi-leveled Grounded Theory Method (GTM) approach. Respondents from LTPA and eight selected townships were administered with semi-structured questionnaires and interviewed. In the preliminary enquiry, the sociological process among housing developers was the urgent need of housing to secure household livelihoods with an underlying psychological pressure of securing shelter in a city with scarcity of land. The next level were the discovered main concerns which were a limitation in adherence to BRM occasioned by ignorance, illiteracy and limited sensitization. The subsequent level then identified core categories that provide an explanation for the main concerns. These were the non-participation of community members in coding of BRM which occasioned a non-awareness of the existence and source of BRM caused by low levels of education attainment among UHD. These core categories were saturated into concepts from which, through a process of theoretical coding, a substantive grounded theory was derived. The identified concepts were a wide spread of the phenomenon of UHD caused by ignorance of the existence of BRM exacerbated by limited and singular online dissemination by LTPA. Further, BRM coding is in the technical English language proving a decoding challenge to UHD. Through theoretical coding, a schema of interpretation of concepts was developed that indicated conceptual relationships in the data collected. The result was the formulation of a substantive theory being termed Placenta Communication Theory (PLACOT). PLACOT utilises metaphorical imagery of a foetus in a placenta which experiences a narrow link (umbilical cord) of communication with the maternal body. Likewise, UHD experience limited communication from LTPA (maternal body) and in spite of this, are ultimately determined to bring their housing into existence similar to a foetus ultimately being born into existence in spite of limited link with the maternal host.

Keywords:
communication housing developers unauthorised building regulations town planners abrogation extent content dissemination decoding coding categories placenta foetus

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Shannon & Weaver (2013). Model of Communication. Available from:https://communicationinlibraries.wordpress.com/2013/12/07/shannon-weaver-model-of-communication/[Accessed 23.7. 2020].
 
[2]  Zambia Statistics Agency (2021). Zambia Data Hub: Lusaka Townships [Online]. Available from:<https://zambia-open-data-nsdi-mlnr.hub.arcgis.com/datasets/>. [Accessed 22 March 2021].
 
[3]  Grollnek, Matthew - Own work [Online] Available from: <https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid>. [Accessed 8 February 2020].
 
[4]  Mulenga, A. (2013). [Online Images]. Available from: <http://andrewmulenga.blogspot.com/2013/03/arts-to-take-centre-stage-during.html>. [Accessed 18 May 2018].
 
[5]  Hansen K. Tranberg (1982). Lusaka’s Squatters: Past and Present in African Studies Review Journal vol. xxv. Available from <https://www.jstor.org/stable/524213?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents>. [Accessed18 March 2017].
 
[6]  Mulenga Leonard Chileshe (2015). The Case of Lusaka, Zambia [Online article]. Available from: <http://sigus.scripts.mit.edu/x/archived/challengecourse/pdfs/pdfscities/Lusaka.pdf>. [Accessed 14 June 2018].
 
[7]  African village Images (2018) [Online image]. Available from: <https://www.google.co.zm/url?sa=i&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2a>. [Accessed 15 September 2018].
 
[8]  Northern Rhodesia Police Photo circa 1954 [Online Image]. Available from: <http://ukzambians.co.uk/home/2016/09/03/photos-from-the-colonial-archives-64/normal_rhodesia_police0/>. [9 Feb. 2018].
 
[9]  Roberts Andrew (1979). A History of Zambia. Available from:< https://books.google.co.zm/books?id=p6HyAQAACAAJ&dq=history+of+zambia.>. [Accessed18 May 2019].
 
[10]  Zulu R and Oyama S (2017). Urbanisation, Housing Problems and Residential land Conflicts in Zambia in Japanese Journal of Human Geography (Jimbun Chiri) Vol. 69 No. 1 (2017) 73-86.
 
[11]  Schlyter Ann (2003). The Privatization of Public Housing and the Exclusion of Women: A case Study in Lusaka, Zambia. University of Gothenburg [Online article] Available from: <file:///C:/Users/felix/Downloads/The_Privatisation_of_Public_Housing_and_the_Exclus.pdf>. [Accessed 24 May 2019].
 
[12]  Report of the National Assembly Committee on Local Government and Housing on Housing Situation in Zambia (2016). Available from: <http://parliament.gov.zm/sites/default/files/documents/:2016>. [Accessed 14 May 2020].
 
[13]  Phiri Daniel (2016). Challenges of Affordable Housing Delivery in Zambia [Online article]. Centre for Affordable Housing in Africa. Available from: <http://housingfinanceafrica.org/documents/challenges-of-affordable-housing-delivery-in-zambia/>. [Accessed 19 Jan 2019].
 
[14]  ZamStat (2021). Available from:<https://zambia-open-data-nsdi-mlnr.hub.arcgis.com/datasets>. [Accessed 15 May 2020].
 
[15]  Satterthwaite D, McGranahan G and Tacoli C (2010). Urbanisation and its Implications for Food and Farming in The Royal Society Publishing [Online] Available: <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2935117/>. [Accessed May 18 2019].
 
[16]  United Nations Sector of Economic and Social Affairs (2004) [Online]. Available from: <https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wess/wess_archive/2004wess_part2_eng.pdf>. [Accessed 19September 2019].
 
[17]  United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) (2010). A Practical Guide for Conducting: Housing Profiles -Supporting evidence-based housing policy and reform. Nairobi [Online]. Available from: <http://www.unhabitat.org>. [9.9. 2019].
 
[18]  Phiri Daniel (2016). Challenges of affordable Housing Delivery in Zambia in Centre for affordable Housing Finance in Africa. <http://housingfinanceafrica.org/documents/challenges-of-affordable-housing-delivery-in-zambia/. [Accessed 18 Mar 2019].
 
[19]  South Africa National Building Standards (SANS) (2020). Rapid Urban Decay in Jozi Blamed on Illegal Building in Building Regulations [Online]. Available from: <https://www.sans10400.co.za/illegal-building-leads-to-chaos/>. [Accessed 24 March 2020].
 
[20]  Santosa H (2004). The structural Forms and construction of informal Housing: A case study of East Java. Available from: <https://www.irbnet.de/daten/iconda/CIB1761.pdf >. [Accessed 26 June 2019].
 
[21]  United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) (2003). The Challenge of Slums- Global Report on Human Settlements. London. Earthscan Publications. Available from :< http://www.unhabitat.org>. [Accessed 19 August 2019].
 
[22]  Woiwode C (2021). Risk Communication in Ahmedabad [Online]. Availablefrom:<https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/37406776/Risk_Communication_in_Ahmedabad-PhD_thesis_CWoiwode.pdf?1429845683=&response-content-disposition=inline%3B+filename%3DUrban_Risk_Communication_in_Ahmedabad_In.pdf>. [Accessed 18 January 2021].
 
[23]  Vijaykumar,S & Raamkumar, A S (2018). Zika reveals India’s risk communication challenges and needs in Indian Journal of Medical Ethics [Online Journal]. Available from: <https://hdl.handle.net/10356/88616>. [Accessed 12 March 2021].
 
[24]  Akunyumu Stephen (2019). Communication problems in projects - a research study for construction site projects: a case study of Ghana. Department of Construction Technology and Management, College of Art and Built Environment, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
 
[25]  Alessandro Lovari (2012). Public Administrations and Citizens 2.0: Exploring Digital Public Communication Strategies and Civic Interaction within Italian Municipality Pages on Facebook in Networked Sociability and Individualism: Technology for Personal and Professional Relationships, page 26 [Online]. Available from: <https://www.igi-global.com/chapter/public-administrations-citizens/60500[Accessed 6 December 2020].
 
[26]  Sergio M. Alcocer, Víctor M. Castaño (2008). Evolution of codes for structural design in Mexico in Structural Survey. Discover Journals, Books & Case Studies [Online Journal]. Available from: <https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/ml>. [Accessed 7 January 2021].
 
[27]  Arifah Fasha Rosmani et al (2020). The evolution of information dissemination, communication media and technology in Malaysia. Journal of Physics: Conference Series [Online]. Available from: <https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/1529/2/022044/pdf>. [Accessed 6 April 2021]. Available from: <https://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/120005324931/[Accessed 27 December 2020].
 
[28]  Dawson Kevin (2017). Consortium of European Building Control A voice for Europe – and beyond. Available from: <https://www.isurv.com/info/390/features/10584/consortium_of_european_building_control>. [Accessed 12 December 2019].
 
[29]  Aluko O (2011). Development Control in Lagos State: an Assessment of Public Compliance to Space Standards for Urban Development [Online article]. Available from: <https://www.ajol.info/index.php/afrrev/article/view/72306>. [Accessed 6 March 2020].
 
[30]  Gelder Jean-Louis (2013). Paradoxes of urban housing Informality in the Developing World. Law & Society Review Vol. 47, No. 3. Available from: <https://www.jstor.org/stable/43670344?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents>. [Accessed 11 March 2020].
 
[31]  Strauss, Anselm and Corbin, Juliet (1998). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California.
 
[32]  Khumalo, R and Ngwenya, B (2015). Grounded Theory Research for Masters and PhD Students. Graduate school of Business, National University of Science and Technology (NUST) Bulawayo.
 
[33]  Bess Ruff (2021). How to Develop a Theory [Online]. Available from: <https://www.wikihow.com/Develop-a-Theory>. [Accessed 15 March 2022].
 
[34]  Glaser, Barney G. & Holton, Judith (2004). Remodelling Grounded Theory in Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 5(2), Article 4 [Online article]. Available from: <https://science-education-research.com/EdResMethod/Theoretical_sensitivity.html. [Accessed 15 March 2022].
 
[35]  Rogers, E M (1995). Diffusion of Innovations (5th Edition). New York: Simon & Schuster.
 
[36]  Fiene Richard (2016). Theory of Regulatory Compliance [Online article]. Available from: <https://ssrn.com/abstract=3239691. [Accessed 23 February 2022].