International Journal of Celiac Disease
ISSN (Print): 2334-3427 ISSN (Online): 2334-3486 Website: Editor-in-chief: Samasca Gabriel
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International Journal of Celiac Disease. 2021, 9(1), 16-22
DOI: 10.12691/ijcd-9-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Gluten-free Foods and Their Contribution to Total Diet in Patients with Celiac Disease

Agustina Norambuena1, 2, Daiana Quintiliano2 and Magdalena Araya1,

1Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile

2Facultad de Medicina, Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile

Pub. Date: January 21, 2021

Cite this paper:
Agustina Norambuena, Daiana Quintiliano and Magdalena Araya. Gluten-free Foods and Their Contribution to Total Diet in Patients with Celiac Disease. International Journal of Celiac Disease. 2021; 9(1):16-22. doi: 10.12691/ijcd-9-1-3


Background. Gluten-free diet continues being the most effective treatment of celiac disease but current evidence on its nutritional characteristics and metabolic effects rises concerns. Objectives. To assess the total diet of adult celiac patients and the contribution of gluten-free foods to it, in Chilean celiac patients. Methodology. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were registered and a food frequency questionnaire including detailed data about gluten-free foods was applied to 71 celiac patients older than 12 years of age receiving medical care at INTA, University of Chile, in Santiago. Total food intake, dietary adequacy and diet nutritional quality was calculated using descriptive statistics. Principal Findings. Of 71 patients, 81.6% were female, 93% were 19-65 years of age and 65% were on GFD for 2 years or more. Nutritional status classified in underweight and overweight/obesity in 2.9% and 35.7%, respectively. 2.8% patients declared to consume willingly gluten containing bread. The whole diet was normocaloric, normoproteic, hyperlipidic and hypoglucidic (FAO/WHO); when calculations were based for individuals’ requirements, 65% of cases consumed excess calories, proteins, and carbohydrates. Gluten-free foods contributed to 17.7%, 11.6%, 11.5% and 23.9% of the total daily intake of calories, protein, lipids, and carbohydrates, respectively. GFF were characterized by having a low protein content. Conclusions. Although the whole diet appeared close to WHO/FAO recommendations when calculated as average for the study group, 65% of participants consumed excess calories, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates when calculations were made on individual basis. There was neither moderate-severe undernutrition nor overweight/obesity in the group studied. It is interesting that both the total diet quality and the nutritional status of the celiac patients assessed were better than those described in the general local population.

adult celiac disease gluten-free diet gluten-free food nutritional status dietary adequacy

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