Biomedical Science and Engineering
ISSN (Print): 2373-1257 ISSN (Online): 2373-1265 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2017, 5(1), 5-8
DOI: 10.12691/bse-5-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Does Temperature Effects the Growth of Cracks in a Tibia due to Distance – running?

M. Tsili1, and D. Zacharopoulos1

1School of Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece

Pub. Date: April 19, 2017

Cite this paper:
M. Tsili and D. Zacharopoulos. Does Temperature Effects the Growth of Cracks in a Tibia due to Distance – running?. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 2017; 5(1):5-8. doi: 10.12691/bse-5-1-2


In present paper we investigated if temperature plays any role to the growth of cracks in a tibia due to distance-running. We used modified theory of adaptive elasticity taking into account the temperature. We compared our results with that of the corresponding problem neglecting temperature and we concluded that temperature effects the bone disease.

temperature growth and propagation of cracks tibia distance running modified adaptive elasticity

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Burstein, A., Reilly, D. and Martens, M. (1976). “Aging of bone tissue mechanical properties. J. Bone Joint Surg”. A58, 82-86.
[2]  Thompson, D. (1980). “Age changes in bone mineralization, cortical thickness, and haversian canal area.”Calcif Tissue, Int. 31, 5-11.
[3]  Grynpas, M. D.and Holmyard, D. (1988). “Changes inquality of bone mineral on aging and in disease”. Scan Microsc. 2, 1045-1054.
[4]  Hui, S. L., Slemenda, C. W. and Johnston, C. C. (1988). Age and bone mass as predictors of fracture in a prospective stu- dy. J. Clin. Invest. 81, 1804-1809.
[5]  Kiebzak G. M. (1991). “Age-related bone changes”. Exp. Ge- rontol. 26, 171-187.
[6]  Simmons, E. D., Pritzker, K. P. and Grynpas, M. D. (1991). “Age - related changes in the human femoral cortex.” J. Orthop. Res.9, 155-167
[7]  Melvin JW.. “Fracture mechanics of bone.” J. Biomech. Eng. 1993. Nov; 115 (4B): 549-554.
[8]  Currey, J. D., Brear, K. and Zioupos, P. (1996). “The effects of aging and changes in mineral content in degrading the toughness of human femora”. J. Biomech. 29, 257-260.
[9]  Francis, R. M. (1996). “Low bone mineral content is com-mon but osteoporotic fractures are rare in elderly rural Gam- bian women.” J. Bone Miner. Res.11, 1019-1025.
[10]  Aspray, T. J., Prentice, A., Cole, T. J., Sawo, Y., Reeve, J. and Francis, R. M. (1996). “Low bone mineral content is com- mon but osteoporotic fractures are rare in elderly rural Gam- bian women.” J. Bone Miner. Res.11, 1019-1025.
[11]  Yeni, Y. N. and Norman, T. L. (2000). “Fracture toughness of human femoral neck: Effect of microstructure, composition and age.” Bone 26, 499-504.
[12]  Wang, X., Shen, X., Li, X. and Agrawal C. M. (2002). “Age- related changes in the collagen network and toughness of bone.” Bone 31, 1-7.
[13]  Akkus, O., Adar, F. and Schaffler, M. B. (2004). “Age-rela- ted changes in physicochemical properties of mineral crystals are related to impaired mechanical function of cortical bone.” Bone 34, 443-453.
[14]  Ritchie. R, Kinney H., Kruzic R., and Nalla R. (2005). “A fracture mechanics and mechanistic approach to the failure of cortical bone.” Fatigue Fract. Engng Mater Struct. 28, 345-37
[15]  Behiri, J. C. and Bonfield, W. (1989). “Orientation dependence of the fracture mechanics of cortical bone.” J. Biomech,. 22, 863-872.
[16]  Yeni, Y. N., Brown, C. U., Wang, Z. and Norman, T. L. (1997). “The influence of bone morphology on fracture tough- ness of the human femur and tibia.” Bone 21, 453-459.
[17]  Yeni, Y. N., Brown, C.U. and Norman, T.L. (1998). “Inf- luence of bone composition and apparent density on fracture toughness of the human femur and tibia”. Bone 22, 79-84.
[18]  Feng, Z., Rho, J., Han, S. and Ziv, I. (2000). “Orientation and loading condition dependence of fracture toughness in cortical bone.” Mater. Sci. Engng CC11, 41-46.
[19]  Brown, C. U., Yeni, Y. N. and Norman, TL.(2000). “Fractu- re toughness is dependent on bone location-A study of the femoral neck, femoral shaft and the tibial shaft.” J. Biomed. Mater. Res.49, 380-389.
[20]  Phelps, J. B., Hubbard, G. B., Wang, X. and Agrawal, C. M.(2000). “Microstructural heterogeneity and the fracture toughness of bone. J. Biomed.” Mater. Res.51, 735-471.
[21]  Yeni, Y. N. and Norman, T. L.(2000). “Fracture toughness of human femoral neck: Effect of microstructure, composition and age.” Bone 26, 499-504.
[22]  Seeman, E. (1999). “The structural basis of bone fragility in men.” Bone 25, 143-147
[23]  Rimnac, C. M., Petko, A. A., Santners, T. J. and Wright, T. M (1993). “The effect of temperature, stress and microstructure on the creep of compact bovine bone”. J. Biomech.26, 219-228.
[24]  Ford C.M. and Keaveny, T.M. (1996). “The dependence of shear failure properties of trabecular bone on apparent density and trabecular orientation.” J. Biomech.29, 1309-1317.
[25]  Carter, D. R. and Hayes, W. C. (1976). “Fatigue life of com- pact bone-I. Effects of stress amplitude, temperature and density.” J. Biomech.9, 27-30, Biomech. 26, 219-228.
[26]  Norman, T.L., Nivargikar, S. V. and Burr, D. B. (1996). “Resistance to crack growth in human cortical bone is greater in shear than in tension”. J. Biomech.29, 1023-1031.
[27]  Feng, Z., Rho, J., Han, S. and Ziv, I. (2000). “Orientation and loading condition dependence of fracture toughness in cortical bone. Mater. Sci. Engng CC11, 41-46.
[28]  Feng X. and M. McDonald J. (2011). “Disorders of Bone Remodeling,” Annu Rev Pathol.; 6: 121-145.
[29]  Hegedus D. and Cowin S. (1976). “Bone remodeling II: Theory of adaptive elasticity.” J. Elastic. 6, pp, 337-352.
[30]  Τsili M. (2008b). “Internal bone remodeling induced by the distance - running and the unkown remodeling coefficients.” in: of- internet journal of bioengineering, Vo- lume 4. number 2,
[31]  Kaplan M., William C. and James A. (1977). “Injuries to the leg and ankle. Chapter 14. From the book: On field eva- luation and treatment of common athletic injuries: (Ed. By Andrews, W. Chaney. and J. Whiteside), Mosby” Year Book, St. Louis Mis- souri”.
[32]  Monaco R., Halpern B., LeeRice E. and J Catalano M (1997). “Lower leg injuries” Chapter 13 of the book “Imaging in musco- skeletal and sports medicine” (Edit., by B. Halpern, S. Herring, Altchek and R.Herog) Blackwell Science.
[33]  Amendola A., Clatworthy M., and Μagness S. (1999). “Overuse injuries of the lower extremity” Chapt, 35., From the book OKY Orthopedic Knowledge Update Sports Medicine (Ed. by the Arenth) American Academy of Orthopaedic Sur- geons, Rosemont, Illinois.
[34]  Boucher R. (1999). “Exercise - induced leg -pain: Chapter 16., of the book “Sports medicine of the lower extremity” (Ed. By St., Subotnick 2 edition).” J. Biomech., 20., pp. 785-794.
[35]  Walker W. (1999). “Lower pain “Chapter 16. From the book “Handbook of sport medicine” (Edited by Lillegard, J. Butc- her and K. Rucker, sec, Edition, Butterworth - Heinemann).”
[36]  Romani W., Gieck J., Perrin, al., (2002). “Mechanisms and management of stress fractures in physically active persons” J. Athl., Train Jul - Sep.,37, pp. 306-314.
[37]  Jones B.,Thacker S., Gilchrist J. et., al., (2002). “Preven- tion of the lower extremity stress fracture in athletes and soldiers: A systematic review.” Epidem., Rev., 24., pp. 228-247
[38]  Mc-Ginnis P. (2005): Biomechanics of sport and exercise- 2nd Ed.) Human Kinetics, Champaign IL.
[39]  Foster FP. (1999). “Pied force in soldiers”. NY Med. J.., 69, pp. 783-785.
[40]  Βerstein A., Childers MA, Fox KW, et., al., (1946). “March fractures of the foot: care and management of 692 patients”. Am. J. Surg, 71, pp 355-362.
[41]  Brubaker SE και James Sl (1994). “Injuries to runners” J., Sports, Med., 2., pp. 189-198.
[42]  McBrude AM. (1975). “Stress fractures in athletes”. J. Sport Med. 3, pp. 212-217.
[43]  Gudas F. (1980). “Patterns of lower- extremity in 224 runners” Exerc., Sports, Med., 6., pp.50-59.
[44]  Orava S. (1980). “Stress fractures”. Br J. Sports Med., 14, pp., 40-44.
[45]  Taunton JE, Clement DB., και Webber D. (1981). “Lower extremity stress fracture in athletes.” Phys. Sports med 9., pp. 77-81 and pp. 85-86.
[46]  Bensel CK, Kish RN (1983). Lower extremity disorders among men and women in Army basic training and effects of two types boots (Technical report Natick TR- 83 / 026). Na- tick, MA US Army Natick Research and development labo- ratories.
[47]  Sullivan D., Warren R., Pavlof H., et., al., (1984). “Stress Fracture in 55 runners”. Clin., Orthop., pp.187-192.
[48]  Ηukko A. και Orava S., (1987). “Stress fracture in athle-tes “. Int., J., Sports Med., 8., pp. 221-226.
[49]  Matheson GO., Clement DB., Mc-Kenzie et., al. (1987). Stress fractures in athletes a study of 320 cases. Am., J., Sports Med. 15., pp. 46-58.
[50]  Markley KL. (1987). Clin., Sports Med., 6., pp., 405-426.
[51]  Greany RB., Gerberfh. FH., Laughlin RL., (1983). “Distribution and natural history of stress fracture in US Marine recruits”.
[52]  Hahn H., Chung M., Yang B. et., al., (1991). “A clinical study of stress fracture in sports activities.” Orthopedics 14., pp. 1089-1095.
[53]  Devas M. (1969). “Stress fracture in athletes“ Proc. R., Soc., Med.,62., pp. 933-937.
[54]  Devas M. (1970). “Stress fracture in athletes.” J., R., Coll Gen., Pract., 19, pp. 34-38.
[55]  Belkin S. (1980). “Stress fracture in athletes.” Clin.Orthop.., North., Am. 11, pp. 735-742.
[56]  Orava and Hulkko (1984). “Stress fracture of the midtibial shaft.” Acta Orthop. Sca., 1984 Volume 55, Issue 1.
[57]  Orava S, Karpakka J, Hulkko A, Väänänen K, Takala T, Kallinen M, Alén M (1991). “Diagnosis and treatment of stress fractures located at the mid- tibial shaft in athletes”. Int. J. Sports Med. Aug; 12(4): 419-22.
[58]  Carter, D.R., and Hayes, W.C. (1974). “Fatigue fracture of bone-temperature dependence”. IRCS Med. Sci. 2:1626.
[59]  Yan J., Clifton K., Mecholsky J. and Gower L. (2007). “Effect of temperature on the fracture toughness of compact bone.” J. Biomech. Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 1641-1645.
[60]  Murcia S, McConville M, Li G, et., al., (2015). “Temperature effects on the fracture resistance of scales from Cyprinus carpio.” Acta Biomater. Mar; 14: 154-63.