American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
ISSN (Print): 2333-4592 ISSN (Online): 2333-4606 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014, 2(5A), 48-50
DOI: 10.12691/ajssm-2-5A-11
Open AccessArticle

Growth Development and Maturity in Children and Adolescent: Relation to Sports and Physical Activity

Indranil Manna1,

1Department of Physiology, Midnapore College, Midnapore, West Bengal, India

Pub. Date: September 25, 2014

Cite this paper:
Indranil Manna. Growth Development and Maturity in Children and Adolescent: Relation to Sports and Physical Activity. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2014; 2(5A):48-50. doi: 10.12691/ajssm-2-5A-11


Growth and physical maturation are dynamic processes encompassing a broad spectrum of cellular and somatic changes. The most obvious signs of physical growth are changes in overall body size. The children of the same age may differ in rate of physical growth. Ethnic variations in growth rate are also common. Thus growth norms (age-related averages for height and weight) must be applied cautiously. Physical growth, like other aspects of development, results from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Moreover, the endocrine glands also control the vast physical changes of childhood and adolescence. Although heredity remains important, environmental factors continue to affect genetic expression. Good nutrition, relative freedom from disease, and emotional well-being are essential to children’s healthy development. Changes in size, proportions, and muscle strength support an explosion of new gross-motor skills. Physical activity is needed for normal growth and development, and for young people to reach their potential in muscle and bone development. Further, the psychological, social, and physical development process project powerful influences on sport participation. Sports scientists, physicians and physical educators must be familiar with the normal patterns of growth and development of the child and adolescent. This allow finding out deviations during the pre-participation examination, guiding children into appropriate activities, aiding them in setting realistic goals concerning sports participation. It also provides guidance to the community and coaches in the design of safe and effective training programme.


Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Neoklis A, Georgopoulos, Kostas B. et al. Growth, pubertal development, skeletal maturation and bone mass acquisition in athletes. Hormones. 2004; 3(4): 233-243.
[2]  Tanner JM. Growth at adolescence, 2nd Ed. Oxford: Blackwell. 1962.
[3]  Malina RM, Bouchard C, and Bar-Or O. Growth, Maturation and Physical Activity, 2nd Ed. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL. 2004.
[4]  Rogol AD, Clark PA, Roemmich JN. Growth and pubertal development in children and adolescents: effects of diet and physical activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72(2): 521S-528S.
[5]  Byrne NM, and Hills AP. The importance of physical activity in the growth and development of children. In Hills AP, King NA, and Byrne NM (Ed.) Children, obesity and exercise: prevention, treatment and management of childhood and adolescent obesity. Routledge, London, 2007; 50-60.
[6]  DErcole AA, D Ercole C, Gobbi M, Gobbi F. Technical, perceptual and motor skills in novice-expert water polo players: an individual discriminant analysis for talent development. J Strength Cond Res. 2013; 27(12):3436-3444.
[7]  Roemmich JN, and Sinning WE. Weight loss and wrestling training: Effects on nutrition, growth, maturation, body composition, and strength. J Appl Physiol. 1997; 82, 1751-1759.
[8]  Pahkala K, Hernelahti M, Heinonen OJ et al. Body mass index, fitness and physical activity from childhood through adolescence. Br J Sports Med. 2013; 47(2): 71-77.
[9]  Hayes HM, Eisenmann JC, Pfeiffer K, Carlson JJ. Weight status, physical activity, and vascular health in 9- to 12-year-old children. J Phys Act Health. 2013; 10(2): 205-210.
[10]  Rowland TW. Effect of prolonged inactivity on aerobic fitness of children. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 1994; 34, 147-155.