American Journal of Public Health Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-669X ISSN (Online): 2327-6703 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Public Health Research. 2021, 9(4), 153-160
DOI: 10.12691/ajphr-9-4-5
Open AccessArticle

The Role of Health Education in the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Salmonella among Primary School Children in Douala, Littoral Region, Cameroon

Francis Shiynsa Kanjo1, 1, Bonaventure Tientche1, 1, , Smith Asaah2 and Henri Lucien Fouamno Kamga3

1Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Buea, Buea, Estuary Academic and Strategic Institute (IUEs/INSAM), Douala, Cameroon

2Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon

3Department of Microbiology, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon

Pub. Date: June 06, 2021

Cite this paper:
Francis Shiynsa Kanjo, Bonaventure Tientche, Smith Asaah and Henri Lucien Fouamno Kamga. The Role of Health Education in the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Salmonella among Primary School Children in Douala, Littoral Region, Cameroon. American Journal of Public Health Research. 2021; 9(4):153-160. doi: 10.12691/ajphr-9-4-5


Mass drug administration is the cornerstone for the control of infection with intestinal parasites, but it does not prevent reinfection and is unlikely to interrupt transmission as a stand-alone intervention. The study, therefore, aimed to determine the role of health education in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPI) among primary school children in Douala, Cameroon. The study was intervention case-control, and prospective longitudinal, conducted in two primary schools in Douala, Littoral Region, Cameroon. The study population consisted of 300 students for both sexes, enrolled from the 1st and 6th grade. For comparison, we used the independent sample t-test. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 22 software. The prevalence of IPI has increased significantly (t=-2.606; P=0.01) in GBPS Ndobo (Control) 6 months after the first phase. The prevalence of intestinal parasites decreased significantly (t =4.093; P<0.0001) in GS Nkonjibe (Experimental) after the intervention. A significant difference in the prevalence of salmonella was found in GS Nkonjibe (Experimental arm) after the intervention (t=2.787; P=0.006). Ascaris lumbricoides was found to be predominant parasites to cause parasitic infection in both schools. The decrease in the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was observed to be associated (P=0.021) with the intervention in GS Nkonjibe (Experimental). Health education intervention increased school children knowledge of IPI that resulted in the reduction of the prevalence of IPI.

GBPS Ndobo (Control) GS Nkonjibe (Experimental arm) prevalence intervention intestinal parasites infections Douala Cameroon

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  World Health Organization: Accelerating Work to Overcome the Global Impact of Neglected Tropical Diseases - A Roadmap for Implementation. Geneva Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2012.
[2]  World Health Organization. Working to Overcome the Global Impact of Neglected Tropical Diseases. Geneva: WHO; 2010.
[3]  Bethony J., Brooker S., Albonico M., Geiger S.M., Loukas A, Soil transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet, 367, 1521-321, 2006.
[4]  World Health Organization. Eliminating soil-transmitted helminthiases as a public health problem in children. Progress Report 2001-2010 and Strategic Plan 2011-2020. Geneva, WHO, 2012.
[5]  Murray C.J.L., Vos T, Lozano R., Naghavi M., Flaxman A.D., Michaud C, Ezzati M, Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet, 380, 2197-223, 2012.
[6]  Thompson R.C.A., Ash A, Molecular epidemiology of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections. Infection Genetic Evolution, 40, 315-323. 2016.
[7]  Hotez P.J., Fenwick A., Savioli L., Molyneux D.H, Rescuing the bottom billion through control of neglected tropical diseases. Lancet, 373, 1570-1575. 2009.
[8]  Anderson R.M, Truscott J.E, Pullan R.L, Brooker S.J, Hollingsworth T.D, How effective is school-based deworming for the community-wide control of soil-transmitted helminths? PLOS Negleted Tropical Diseases 7: e2027. 2013.
[9]  World Health Organization (WHO) fact sheet, 2020.
[10]  Taylor-Robinson D.C, Maayan N., Soares-Weiser K., Donegan S, Garner P, Deworming drugs for soil-transmitted intestinal worms in children: effects on nutritional indicators, haemoglobin, and school performance. The Cochrane Library. 2015.
[11]  Dessie A, Gebrehiwot T.G, Kiros B, Wami S.D and Chercos D.H, Intestinal parasitic infections and determinant factors among school-age children in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study BMC research Notes, 12. 777. 2019.
[12]  Bragagnollo G.R, Santos T.S, Fonseca R.E.P, Acrani M., Castelo Branco M.Z.P, Ferreira B.R, educational intervention with schoolchildren on intestinal parasitosis. Rev Bras Enferm. 72 (5). 1203-10. 2019.
[13]  Jemaneh L. Comparative prevalences of some common intestinal helminth infections in different altitudinal regions in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Medical Journal, 36, 1-8. 1998.
[14]  Bieri F.A., Gray D.J., Williams G.M., Raso G., Li Y.S. Health-education package to prevent worm infections in Chinese schoolchildren. New England Journal of Medicine, 368, 1603-1612. 2013.
[15]  Bieri F.A., Li Y.S., Yuan L.P., He Y.K., Gray D.J. School-Based Health Education Targeting Intestinal Worms—Further Support for Integrated Control. PLoS Negleted tropical Diseases, 8(3): e2621, 2014.
[16]  BUCREP, Bureau Central des Recensements et des Etudes de Population, Third general population and housing census Cameroun, Rapport de presentation des résulstats définitifs. République du Cameroun; 2010.
[17]  Tchuem-Tchuente´ LA, Kuete´ Fouodo C.J, Kamwa Ngassam R.I, Sumo L, Dongmo N.C, Kenfack CM, Gipwe NF, Nana E.D, Stothard J.R, Rollinson D, Evaluation of Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA) UrineTests for Diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Cameroon. PLoS Negleted Tropical Diseases. 6.7: e1758, 2012.
[18]  Mbuh J.V, Ntonifor H.N and Ojong J.T,The incidence, intensity and host morbidity of human parasitic protozoan infections in gastrointestinal disorder outpatients in Buea Sub Division, Cameroon. Journal Infections Development Countries, 4 (1), 038-043, 2010.
[19]  Kuete T, Yemeli F.L.S, Essono Mvoa E, Nkoa T, Moyou Somo R, Ekoboa S, “Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth and protozoa infections in an urban setting of Cameroon: the case of Douala”. American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease, 3, 36-44, 2015.
[20]  Nkengazong L1,2, Banlock AT2, Tombi J2, Ngue M1, Motsebo A1, Moyou- Somo. Persistence in Endemicity of NTDs: Case of Intestinal Parasites in the Health District of Lolodorf, South Cameroon International Journal of Health Sciences & Research ( 8, (6), 2018.
[21]  WHO-Cameroon, Rapport annuel 2017.
[22]  Tchuem Tchuenté L.A., N’Goran E.K., “Schistosomiasis and soiltransmitted helminthiasis control in Cameroon and Côte d’Ivoire: implementing control on a limited budget,” Parasitology, 136: 1736-1745, 2009.
[23]  Pucciarelli M., Vannini S., Cantoni L., “Mapping the digital Douala: lights and shadows of an African City,” 2014.
[24]  Annuaire statistique de la Region du Littoral recueil des séries d’informations statistiques sur les activités économiques, sociales, politiques et culturelles de la région jusqu’en 2014. Edition 2015.
[25]  Tchuem-Tchuenté L.A., Dongmo N.C., Ngassam R.I.K., Feussom GN, Dankoni, E., Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommandations for treatment. BMC Infectious diseases, 13, 602, 2013.
[26]  Cheesbrough M. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Cambridge university press; 2006.
[27]  Misganaw B., David W.,. A study of Salmonella carriage among asymptomatic food-handlers in Southern Ethiopia. International. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 2(5): 243-245. 2013.
[28]  Montresor A., Crompton D.W.T., Gyorkos T.W., Savioli L. Helminth control in school-age children: a guide for managers of control programmes. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002.
[29]  McManus D.P., Bieri F. A, Yue-Sheng L., Gail M.W., Li-Ping Y., Gray. Health education and the control of intestinal worm infections in China: a new vision Parasites & Vectors, 7, 344. 2014.
[30]  Kamga H.L.F, Nsagha S.D., Suh M.B. Atanga, Njunda A..L, Assob J.C.N, The impact of health education on the prevalence of faecal-orally transmitted parasitic infections among school children in a rural community in Cameroon. Pan African Medical Journal, 8.38, 2011.
[31]  Eldessouki K.H.. and Magdy F, Evaluation of health education role in control of intestinal parasitic infestations among primary school children in El-Minia city. El-Minia medical bulletin, 22(2), 2011.
[32]  Fokou R. and Nack J, Persistence of Tenia solium amongst others human Gastro-intestinal parasites in Bamboutos locality (West region-Cameroon). Journal of Applied Biosciences, 144. 14813-14821, 2019.
[33]  Benouis A., Bekkouche Z. and Benmansour Z., Etude épidémiologique des parasitoses intestinales humaines au niveau du C.H.U. d’Oran (Algérie). International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, 2 (4), 613-620, 2013.
[34]  Tchapda T.F.E, Tientche B., Ngouakam H.,,Asaah S., Kamga H.L.F. Geohelminth among Public School Children in Douala Metropolis: Prevalence, Perception and Associated Risk Factors American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease, 8, (2), 56-62, 2020.
[35]  Pereira A.P.M.F, Alencar M.F.L., Cohen S.C., Souza-Júnior P.R.B., Cecchetto F., Mathias L.S., Santos C.P., Almeida J.C.A. and De Moraes Neto A.H.A.. The influence of health education on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a low-income community of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Parasitology, 2012.
[36]  Petter N.L, Sigurd D.B and Wongraven M, “Prevalence of malaria and soil-transmitted helminth infections in healthy school children in Cameroon,” International Journal of Malaria and Tropical Diseases, 1, 030-037, 2017.