American Journal of Mechanical Engineering
ISSN (Print): 2328-4102 ISSN (Online): 2328-4110 Website: Editor-in-chief: Kambiz Ebrahimi, Dr. SRINIVASA VENKATESHAPPA CHIKKOL
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2015, 3(4), 126-134
DOI: 10.12691/ajme-3-4-4
Open AccessArticle

Analysis of Stress Mitigation through Defence Hole System in GFRP Composite Bolted Joint

Khudhayer J. Jadee1, and A.R. Othman2

1Technical Engineering College-Baghdad, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq

2School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

Pub. Date: August 17, 2015

Cite this paper:
Khudhayer J. Jadee and A.R. Othman. Analysis of Stress Mitigation through Defence Hole System in GFRP Composite Bolted Joint. American Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2015; 3(4):126-134. doi: 10.12691/ajme-3-4-4


The effect of the defence hole system (DHS) on the stress distribution around the bolt-hole in glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite bolted joint has been investigated using a finite element method. The analyses have been carried out on a double-lap composite bolted joint with various geometric parameters for two cases of without and with DHS. The analyses have taken into account a 3D stress plane condition, in which the circumferential and radial stresses at the bearing region, shear-out and net tension regions of the bolt-hole have been determined. Results showed that adding auxiliary hole near the bolt-hole has contributed in reducing the stresses in the vicinity of the bolt-hole.

defence hole system bolted joint GFRP finite element analysis

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Choi JH, Ban CS, Kweon JH, Failure load prediction of a mechanically fastened composite joint subjected to a clamping force, Journal of Composite Materials, 42(14). 1415-1428. July 2008.
[2]  Ryu CO, Choi JH, Kweon JH, Failure load prediction of composite joints using linear analysis, Journal of Composite Materials, 41.865-878. April 2007.
[3]  Goswami S. A finite element investigation on progressive failure analysis of composite bolted joints under thermal environment, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 24. 161-171. January 2005.
[4]  Tenchev TR, K. Nygard M, Echtermeyer A, Design procedure for reducing the stress concentration around circular holes in laminated composites, Composites, 26 (12). 815-828. December 1995.
[5]  Giare GS, Shabahang R, The reduction of stress concentration around the hole in an isotropic plate using composite materials, Engineering Fracture Mechanics,32(5). 757-766. 1989.
[6]  Muc A, Ulatowska A, Local fibre reinforcement of holes in composite multilayered plates, Composite Structures, 94(4). 1413-1419. March 2012.
[7]  Tosh MW, Kelly DW, On the design, manufacture and testing of trajectorial fibre steering for carbon fibre composite laminates, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 31(10). 1047-1060. October2000.
[8]  Dhir SK, Optimization in a class of hole shapes in plate structures, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 48(4). 905-908. January 1981.
[9]  Wu Z. Optimal hole shape for minimum stress concentration using parameterized geometry models, Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 37(6). 625-634. February 2009.
[10]  Wu H-C, Mu B, On stress concentrations for isotropic/orthotropic plates and cylinders with a circular hole, Composites Part B: Engineering, 34(2). 127-134. March 2003.
[11]  William LK, Stress concentration around a small circular hole in the HiMAT composite plate. NASA technical memorandum 86038, 1-16. December 1985.
[12]  Toubal L, Karama M, Lorrain B, Stress concentration in a circular hole in composite plate, Composite Structures, 68(1). 31-36. April 2005.
[13]  Durelli AJ, Rajaiah K, Optimum hole shapes in finite plates under uniaxial load, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 46(3). 691-695. 1979.
[14]  Rajaiah K, Naik NK, Hole-shape optimization in a finite plate in the presence of auxiliary holes, Experimental Mechanics, 24(2). 157-161. June 1984.
[15]  Erickson PE, Riley WF, Minimizing stress concentrations around circular holes in uniaxially loaded plates, Experimental Mechanics, 18(3). 97-100. March 1978.
[16]  Naik NK, Photoelastic investigation of finite plates with multi-holes, Mechanics Research Communications, 15(3). 141-146. May 1988.
[17]  Akour SN, Nayfeh JF, Nicholson DW, Defense hole design for a shear dominant loaded plate, International Journal of Applied Mechanics, 2(2). 381-398. June 2010.
[18]  Sanyal S, Yadav P, Relief holes for stress mitigation in infinite thin plates with single circular hole loaded axially, ASME 2005 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, ASME . 717-720.
[19]  Providakis CP, Sotiropoulos DA, A BEM approach to the stress concentration reduction in visco-plastic plates by multiple holes, Computers and Structures, 64(1). 313-317. July 1997.
[20]  Nagpal S, Optimization of rectangular plate with central square hole subjected to in-plane static loading for mitigation of SCF, International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 1(6). 1-8. August 2012.
[21]  Nagpal S, S.Sanyal, Jain N, Mitigation curves for determination of relief holes to mitigate stress concentration factor in thin plates loaded axially for different discontinuities, International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology, 2(3). 1-7. September 2012.
[22]  Ulrich TW, Moslehy FA, A boundary element method for stress reduction by optimal auxiliary holes, Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 15(3). 219-223. January 1995.
[23]  Meguid SA, Shen CL, On the elastic fields of interacting defense and main hole systems, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 34(1). 17-29. January 1992.
[24]  Rhee J, Rowlands RE, Stresses around extremely large or interacting multiple holes in orthotropic composites, Computers and Structures,61(5). 935-950. December 1996.
[25]  Rhee J, Cho H-K, Marr DJ, Rowlands RE, Local compliance, stress concentrations and strength in orthotropic materials, The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 47(2). 113-128. February 2012.
[26]  Jain NK, The reduction of stress concentration in a uni-axially loaded infinite width rectangular isotropic/orthotropic plate with central circular hole by coaxial auxiliary holes, IIUM Engineering Journal, 12(6). 141-150. 2011.
[27]  Akour SN, Al-Husban M, Nayfeh JF, Design and optimization of defense hole system for hybrid loaded laminates, Technology Engineering and Management in Aviation: Advancements and Discoveries, IGI Global, Hershey, 151-160. 2012.
[28]  Jindal UC, Reduction of stress concentration around a hole in a uniaxially loaded plate, The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 18(2). 135-141. April 1983.
[29]  Akour SN, Nayfeh JF, Nicholson DW, Design of a defence hole system for a shear-loaded plate, The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 38(6). 507-517. January 2003.
[30]  Meguid SA, Gong SX, Stress concentration around interacting circular holes: a comparison between theory and experiments, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 44(2). 247-256. January 1993
[31]  Okutan B, The effects of geometric parameters on the failure strength for pin-loaded multi-directional fiber-glass reinforced epoxy laminate, Composites Part B: Engineering, 33(8). 567-578. November 2002.
[32]  Karakuzu R, Çalışkan CR, Aktaş M, İçten BM, Failure behavior of laminated composite plates with two serial pin-loaded holes, Composite Structures, 82(2). 225-234. January 2008.
[33]  Karakuzu R, Taylak N, İçten BM, Aktaş M, Effects of geometric parameters on failure behavior in laminated composite plates with two parallel pin-loaded holes, Composite Structures, 85(1). 1-9. September 2008.
[34]  Karakuzu R, Gülem T, I ten BM, Failure analysis of woven laminated glass-vinylester composites with pin-loaded hole, Composite Structures, 72(1). 27-32. January 2006.
[35]  Kelly G, Hallström S, Bearing strength of carbon fibre/epoxy laminates: effects of bolt-hole clearance, Composites Part B: Engineering, 35(4). 331-43. January 2004.
[36]  Crews JH, Jr., Hong CS, Raju IS, Stress-concentration factors for finite orthotropic laminates with a pin-loaded hole, NASA Technical Paper 1862, 1-40. May1981.