American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture
ISSN (Print): 2328-398X ISSN (Online): 2328-3998 Website: Editor-in-chief: Dr. Mohammad Arif Kamal
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015, 3(5), 182-192
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-3-5-5
Open AccessArticle

Development of a Safety Performance Index for Construction Projects in Egypt

Riham El-nagar1, , Hossam Hosny2 and Hamed S Askar1

1Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

2Construction Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

Pub. Date: October 30, 2015

Cite this paper:
Riham El-nagar, Hossam Hosny and Hamed S Askar. Development of a Safety Performance Index for Construction Projects in Egypt. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2015; 3(5):182-192. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-3-5-5


The objective of this research paper is twofold. First, identify the main factors that can be considered as safety performance indicators for the construction projects in Egypt. The identification of these factors can contribute to creating awareness and/or improving safety performance. Second, develop a safety performance index for the Egyptian construction projects. Through a comprehensive literature review the different safety performance indicators were compiled. A questionnaire survey was conducted among construction experts to identify the relative importance of these indicators. The study collects data from 238 contractors. The collected data was included information regarding worker factors, environmental factors, and organizational factors. Finally, some statistical analyses were carried out to develop the proposed safety performance index. The study reveals the most important safety performance factors. Among these are the lack of historical factors, natural environment, incentives factors and project budget, plan, and safety training. Moreover, the developed index can be used as an effective tool to evaluate the expected safety performance of any construction project in Egypt.

construction sites safety factors management practices safety performance index

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Abdelhamid, T. S., and Everett, J. G. (2000). “Identifying root causes of construction accidents.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 126(1), 52-60.
[2]  Adams, E. (1976). Accident causation and the management system. Professional safety 22(10), 26-29.
[3]  Al-Amoudi, W. A., (1997). “Assessment of Safety Level in Performing Building Maintenance Work in Saudi Arabia”, unpublished Master Thesis, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
[4]  Allan St John Holt Foreword by Sir Frank Lampl, (2005). Principles of construction safety. First published in hardback 2001 Reissued in paperback 2005 Reprinted 2006.
[5]  Aneziris, O.N., Papazoglou, I.A. and Kallianiotis, D. (2010). Occupational Risk of Tunnelling Construction. Journal of Safety Science 48, 964-972.
[6]  Baradan, S., and Usman, M. A. (2006). Comparative injury and fatality risk analysis of building trade. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 132(5), 533-539.
[7]  Benjamin, W.N. and Andris, F.l. (1999). Methods, standards, and work design. (New York: McGraw-Hill).
[8]  Bird, F. (1974). Management guide to loss control. In: Institute Press, Atlanta, Atlanta.
[9]  Cabrera, D, Fernaud, HE and D´ıaz, R (2007). An evaluation of a new instrument to measure organizational safety culture values and practices‘, Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol.39, pp.1202-1211.
[10]  Cascio, W.F. (2003). Managing human resources: Productivity, quality of work life, profits 6th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
[11]  Chang, H and Yeh, C (2005). Factors affecting the safety performance of bus companies the experience of Taiwan bus deregulation‘, Safety Science, vol. 43, pp. 323-344.
[12]  Chan, D.W.M., Chan, A.P.C. and Choi, T.N.Y. (2010). An empirical survey of the benefits of implementing pay for safety scheme (PFSS) in the Hong Kong construction industry. International Journal of Safety Research, 41(5): 433-443.
[13]  Cherrington, D.J.( 1995). The management of human resources, 4th ed. (New Jersey: Prentice Hall).
[14]  Cliff Dunlap, December (2012).A safety elements model for the building construction industry. Doctor Thesis in the Department of Engineering Science. Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College.
[15]  Cohen, A., (1977). Factors in successful safety programs. Journal of Safety Research 9, 168-178.
[16]  Cooper M and Phillips R (2004) “Exploratory analysis of the safety climate and safety behavior relationship”, Journal of Safety Research, 35: 497-512.
[17]  Cox, S.J. and Cheyne, A.J.T. (2000). Assessing safety culture in offshore environments. Safety Science, 34(1-3), 111-129.
[18]  Dedobbeleer, N., Beland, F., 1991. A safety climate measure for construction sites. Journal of Safety Research 22, 97-103.
[19]  DOSH, 2011. Annual Report 2010. “Ministry of Human Resources”.
[20]  Enshassi, A, Choudhry, RM, Mayer, PE and Shoman, Y (2008), Safety Performance of Subcontractors in the Palestinian Construction Industry‘, Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, vol.13, no.1, pp. 51-62.
[21]  Erickson, J.A. (2000). Corporate culture: The key to safety performance. Occupational Hazards, April, 45-50.
[22]  European Process Safety Centre (1994) Safety Management Systems: sharing experiences in process safety, published by the Institution of Chemical Engineers, ISBN 0 85295 356 9, United Kingdom.
[23]  Fera, M. (2009). Proposal of a Quali-Quantitative Assessment Model for the SMEs Health and Safety. Journal of Safety and Security Engineering 3, 117-126.
[24]  Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
[25]  Fung, I.W, Tam, V.W, Lo, T. and Lu, L. (2010). Developing a Risk Assessment Model for construction safety; International Journal of Project Management 28; 593-600.
[26]  George D. and Mallery P., (2003), SPSS for window Step by Step, fourth edition.
[27]  Glendon A and Litherland D (2001). “Safety climate factors, group differences and safety behavior in road construction”, Safety Science, 39: 157-88.
[28]  Goncalves, S., Silva, S., Lima, M.L. and Melia, J. (2008). The impact of work accidents experience on causal attributions and worker behavior. Safety Science, 46, 992-1001.
[29]  Gothenburg and Sweden (2012). Health and safety risk management on building construction sites in Tanzania: The Practice of Risk Assessment, Communication and Control.
[30]  Guadagnoli, E. and W. F. Velicer. (1988). “Relation of sample size to the stability of component patterns”. Psychological Bulletin, 103 (2.): 265-75.
[31]  Gurcanli, G.E., Mungen, U., (2009). An occupational safety risk analysis method at construction sites using fuzzy sets. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 39, 371-387.
[32]  Hakkinen, K. (1995). A learning-by-doing strategy to improve top management involvement in safety. Safety Science, 20(2-3), 299-304.
[33]  Hallowell, M.R., (2008). A Formal Model for Construction Safety and Health Risk Management. Doctoral Thesis; Oregon State University, Oregon.
[34]  Haslam, R. A., Hide, S. A., Gibb, A. G. F., Gyi, D. E., Atkinson, S., Pavitt, T. C., Duff, R. and Suraji, A., (2003). Causal factors in construction accidents. Health and Safety.
[35]  Hassanein, A. G., and Hanna, R. S. (2008) “Safety Performance in the Egyptian Construction Industry” J. Constr. Eng. Manage. Vol. 134, No. 6, June 1, 2008, 451-455.
[36]  Health and Safety Executive (HSE) 2001. A Guide to Measuring Health and Safety Performance. London: Health and Safety Executive.
[37]  Hendry, C., (2003). Applying employment systems theory to the analysis of national models of HRM. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(8), 1 430-1 442.
[38]  Hopkins, A. (2005). Safety, Culture and Risk: The Organizational Causes of Disasters. Sydney: CCH.
[39]  Hsu, S. H., Lee, C. C., Wu, M. C., and Takano, K. (2008). A cross-cultural study of organizational factors on safety: Japanese vs. Taiwanese oil refinery plants. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40(1), 24-34.
[40]  Hudson, P. (2007). Implementing a safety culture in a major multi-national. Safety Science, 45(6), 697-722.
[41]  Hutcheson, G., & Sofroniou, N. (1999). The multivariate social scientist. London: Sage.
[42]  Inyang, B.J. (2008). Bridging the Existing Gap between Human Resource Management Function (HRMF) and Enterprise Management (EM) in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 5 (6), 534-544.
[43]  K. Mouleeswaran (2014). Evaluation of Safety Performance Level of Construction Firms In And Around Erode Zone. India.
[44]  Kaiser, H.F., (1970). A second generation little jiffy. Psychometrika 35, 401-416.
[45]  Kines, P., Andersen, L. P. S., Spangerberg, S., Mikkelsen, K. L., Dyreborg, J., and Zohar, D. (2010). Improving construction site safety through leader-based verbal safety communication. Journal of Safety Research, 41(5), 399-406.
[46]  Levitt, R. E. and Samelson, N. M. (1987). Construction Safety Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
[47]  Lingard, H and Rowlinson, S M. (2005). Occupational Health and Safety in construction project management; UK Taylor & Francis.
[48]  Maertens JA, Putter SE, Chen PY, Diehl M, Huang YH (2012) Physical capabilities and occupational health of older workers. In: Hedge JW, Borman WC, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Work and Aging. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
[49]  Marhavilas P.K, Koulouriotis, D. Gemeni, V. (2011). Risk Analysis and Assessment Methodologies in the Work Sites: On a Review, Classification and Comparative study of the Scientific Literature of the period 2000-2009; Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 24 477-523
[50]  Madany, Magedy A. M. (1998). “Construction Safety in Egypt”, Master thesis, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
[51]  Mearns, K., Whitaker, S.M., Flin, R., 2003. Safety climate, safety management practice and safety performance in offshore environments. Safety Science 41, 641-680.
[52]  Mearns, K and Yule, S (2009) The role of national culture in determining safety performance: Challenges for the global oil and gas industry, Safety Science, Vol 47:6, pp 777-785.
[53]  Neal, A., Griffin, M. A., and Hart, P. M. (2000). The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior. Safety Science, 34(1-3), 99-109.
[54]  Oh, J.I.H. and Sol, V.M. (2008). The policy program improving occupational safety in the Netherlands: An innovative view on occupational safety. Safety Science, 46(2), 155-163.
[55]  Ostroff, C., Kinicki, A., and Tamkins, M. (2003). Organizational culture and climate. In W.C. Borman and D. R. Ilgen (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 12): 565-593. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[56]  Petersen, D. (1998). Techniques of Safety Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
[57]  Phi Hughes, Fciosh, Rsp, Chainman NEBOSH (1995-2001), Book, Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction Projects (1995-2001).
[58]  Reichers, A.R. and Schneider, B. (1990). Climate and culture: An evolution of constructs. In Schneider, B. (Eds.), Organizational Climate and Culture.
[59]  Reese, C. D. (2004). Office building safety and health. United States of America: CRC Press.
[60]  Riham El-nagar, 2015 continued. Development of a Safety Performance Index for Construction Projects. Master Thesis. Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt.
[61]  Roughton, J (1993), Integrating quality into safety and health management‘, Industrial Engineering, vol.7, pp. 35-40.
[62]  Rozenfeld, O., Sacks, R., Rosenfeld, Y. And Baum, H., (2010). Construction Job Safety Analysis. Journal of Safety Science 48 (4), 491-498.
[63]  Rundmo, T., (1994). Association between safety and contingency measures and occupational accidents on offshore petroleum platforms. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment and Health 20, 128-131.
[64]  Samra, J, Gilbert, M, Shain, M and Bilsker, D (2009), The Business Case for Psychological Safety & Health‘ Consortium for Organizational Mental Healthcare‘
[65]  Shannon HS, Walters V, Lewchuk W, Richardson J, Moran LA, Haines T, Verma D. (1996). Workplace organizational correlates of lost time accident rates in manufacturing. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 29: 258-268.
[66]  Shash, A., and Abdul-Hadi, N.H. (1993). “The Effect of Contractor Size on Mark-up Size Decision in Saudi Arabia”, Construction Management and Economics, Vol.11., PP421-429.
[67]  Shirong Li, Xueping Xiang, 2011. The Establishment of Cause-System of Poor Construction Site Safety and Priority Analysis from Different Perspectives. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology.
[68]  Sidloyi, X. and Smallwood J.J. South Africa, (2011). The exploration of human resource management strategies implemented by architectural practices in order to achieve lean production.
[69]  Siu, O.L., Phillips, D.R. and Leung, T.W. (2003). Age differences in safety attitudes and safety performance in Hong Kong construction workers. Journal of Safety Research, 34(2), 199-205.
[70]  Sunindijo, R. Y. and Zou, P. X. W. (2012). How project manager’s skills may influence the development of safety climate in construction projects. International Journal of Project Organization and Management, 4(3), 286-301.
[71]  Suraji, A., and Duff et al. (2001). Development of casual model of construction accident causation. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 127(4), 337-344.
[72]  Tabachnick, B.G. and Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics. 5th ed. Boston: Allynand Bacon.
[73]  Tam, C. M.; Fung, I. W. H.; Yeung, T. C. L.; Tung, C. F. 2003. Relationship between construction safety signs and symbol recognition and characteristics of construction personal, Construction Management and Economics 21(7): 745-753.
[74]  Teo, E.A.L., Ling, F.T.Y., and Chong, A.F.W. (2005). Framework for Project Managers to Manage Construction Safety, International Journal of Project Management, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 329-341.
[75]  V. Y. Haines III, G. Merrheim, and M. Roy (2001). Understanding the Reactions to Safety Incentives. Journal of Safety Research, 32 (1): 17-30.
[76]  Vredenburgh, A.G., (2002). Organizational safety – which management practices are most effective in reducing employee injury rates? Journal of Safety Research 33, 259–276.
[77]  Wagner, P. (2010). Safety - A Wicked Problem. Retrieved from Problem2.pdf.
[78]  Wu, W., Gibb, A.F. and Li, Q., (2010). Accident Precursors and Near Misses on Construction Sites: an Investigative Tool to Derive Information from Accident Databases. Journal of Safety Science 48 (7), 845-858.
[79]  Zohar, D. (2000). A group-level model of safety climate: Testing the effect of group climate on micro accidents in manufacturing jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 587-596.
[80]  Zohar, D. and Luria, G. (2005). A multilevel model of safety climate: Cross-level relationships between organization and group-level climates. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 616-628Zou, P. X. W., Sun, A. C. S., Long, B., and Marix-Evans, P. (2010, 11-13 May). Return on investment of safety risk management system in construction. Paper presented at the CIB World Congress, Salford Manchester UK.