American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture
ISSN (Print): 2328-398X ISSN (Online): 2328-3998 Website: Editor-in-chief: Dr. Mohammad Arif Kamal
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2020, 8(2), 62-77
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-8-2-6
Open AccessCase Study

Evaluation on the Potential Use of Pulverized Natural Subbase Dust as Alternative Filler Material for Hot Mix Asphalt Design, Jimma Town

Bereket Yohannes1, Emer T. Quezon2, and Markos Tsegaye1

1Highway Engineering Stream, Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Jimma Institute of Technology, Jimma University, Ethiopia

2Construction Engineering and Management Stream, Ambo Institute of Technology, Ambo University, Ambo, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

Pub. Date: May 24, 2020

Cite this paper:
Bereket Yohannes, Emer T. Quezon and Markos Tsegaye. Evaluation on the Potential Use of Pulverized Natural Subbase Dust as Alternative Filler Material for Hot Mix Asphalt Design, Jimma Town. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2020; 8(2):62-77. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-8-2-6


A well-designed asphalt mixture is expected to serve effectively for many years under a variety of loading and environmental conditions. Bituminous concrete is one of the highest and costliest types of flexible pavement. One of the main problems in the construction of asphalt paving mixture is obtaining a sufficient amount of filler material and high cost of the use of ordinary Portland cement, hydrated lime, or marble dust as filler material. Asphalt Institution restricted the use of a maximum limit of 2% proportion to improve the aggregates adhesion properties only, which is not sufficient quantity to achieve the grading requirements. To alleviate this problem, it is important to come across alternative filler material that can be used in more quantity. The study has investigated the potential use of natural subbase dust (MSD)as alternative filler material, and their characteristic on the effect of hot asphalt mixture was identified. This research was conducted by using Experimental Research Design. In total, 48 samples were prepared according to ASTM D1559, of which 15 of them used to calculate the OBC and the rest to find out the effects of adding different percentages of NSD to the asphalt mixture. For this purpose, five different bitumen contents were used (4%−6% with 0.5% increments). Aggregate mixtures blended without filler and with NSD filler were investigated to evaluate their Marshall properties on HMA mixtures. Four varying percentages of NSD ranging from (2% - 8% at 2% increments) were used for Marshall experiments. And for the control mix, 2% hydrated lime (HL) and 2% ordinary Portland cement used in the mixture besides, 4% Marble Dust was used as a reference. The aggregates were blended by using Job mix formula to obtain the percentage of material proportion. As a result for aggregates blended without filler G-1 (26%), G-2 (23%) and G-3 (51%) proportion were used whereas for aggregates blended with NSD filler, G-1 (26%), G-2 (22%), G-3 (46%) and G-4 (6%) was utilized. Where G-1 is Coarse Aggregate 3/4, G-2 is Intermediate Aggregate 3/8, G-3 is Fine Aggregate, and G-4 is NSD filler. Based on Marshall test results, the OBC was found 5.1% by the total asphalt mix. Furthermore, examining Marshall mixes containing different percentages of filler showed the optimum percentage of NSD was 6%. The Marshall properties of the experiments at 6% NDS filler resulted in high stability, low flow, lower VFB, low VMA & lower air voids that are consistent with the standard specifications. The investigation of NSD filler has resulted in good effects on the Marshall properties of the asphalt mixture. Furthermore, the outcome of Marshall parameters like stability, air voids, and bulk density values was consistent with the standard specifications. Therefore, NSD filler can potentially be used as an alternative filler material in HMA with optimum filler content of 6%. Besides, it is recommended to exercise the use of NSD as filler material in HMA projects in order to ensure the quality of works, save transportation costs and save time spend to import other filler materials from far away. It is also recommended combining NSD filler with other materials may produce a better outcome on the effects on the asphalt mix properties.

Aggregates Natural Subbase Dust Filler Bituminous Paving Mixes Cement Hydrated Lime Marble Dust Marshall Mix Design Optimum Filler Content

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Brown E. Ray and Mallick Rajib B., "Stone matrix asphalt-properties related to mixture design. NCAT Report 94-2, National Center for Asphalt Technology, Auburn, Alabama, USA.," 1994.
[2]  ERA Manual, "Standard Technical Specification", 2002.
[3]  Ilan Ishai Joseph Craus and Arieh Sides, "A Model for Relating Filler Properties to Optimal Behavior of Bituminous Mixtures," AAPt', vol. 49, 1980.
[4]  Kandhal P.S. et al, "Characterization tests for mineral fillers related to performance of asphalt paving mixtures," NCAT Rep., vol. 98, no. 2, 1998.
[5]  Asi Ibrahim and Assa’ad Abdullah, " Effect of Jordanian oil shale fly ash on asphalt mixes," J Mater CivEng, vol. 17, p. 553-9, 2005.
[6]  Anderson D.A. et al, "Rheological properties of mineral filler asphalt mastics and their relationship to pavement performance, ASTM STP 1147, Richard C. Meininger, Ed., American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia, USA," 1992.
[7]  Anderson D. A., "Guidelines for use of dust in hot mix asphalt concrete mixtures.”Proc. Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, 56, Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, St. Paul, MN, 492-516, 1987.," St. Paul. MN., p. 492-516, 1987.
[8]  Bahia al, "Non-linear visco-elastic and fatigue properties of asphalt binders," Journal of Association of Asphalt Paving Technology, vol. 68, pp. 1-34, 1999.
[9]  FHWA-80-R-BOO426. Principles of Construction of Quality Hot-Mix Asphalt Pavements. Instructor’s Training Course Manual. Final Version. (1982).
[10]  AASHTO T 245: Standard Method of Test for Resistance to Plastic Flow of Asphalt Mixtures using Marshall Apparatus. (2015).
[11]  National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. A Manual for Design of Hot-Mix Asphalt with Commentary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. (2011).
[12]  A Manual of Design of Hot-Mix Asphalt. (2019). hhtps://
[13]  Volumetric in Asphalt Mixtures: Colorado Asphalt Pavement Association. (2019).
[14]  Kadal Kalabar. ASTM D1559: Marshall Stability Test. ISBN-959-7-57238-648-6. (2013).
[15]  Transportation American Association of State Highway, "AASHTO M-17 Standard specification for mineral filler for bituminous paving mixtures", Washington DC, 20001, 2008.
[16]  ASTM D6927-10. Standard Practice for Marshall Stability and Flow of Asphalt Mixture, Annual book of ASTM Standards, West Conshohocken, 2010.
[17]  Zulkati A. et al, "Effects of Fillers on properties of Asphalt-Concrete Mixture," Journal of Transportation Engineering, ASCE, vol. 138, no. 7, pp. 902-910, 2012.
[18]  Sung Do Hwang et al, "A study on engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using filler with recycled waste lime," Waste Manage, vol. 28, p. 191-199, 2008.
[19]  Mogawer W. S. and Stuart K. D., "Effects of mineral fillers on properties of stone matrix asphalt mixtures. Transportation Research Record," Journal of the Transportation Research Board, vol. 1530, no. 1, pp. 86-94, 1996.
[20]  Kandhal P.S. et al, "Characterization tests for mineral fillers related to performance of asphalt paving mixtures," NCAT Rep., vol. 98, no. 2, 1998.
[21]  The Asphalt Institute (AI), "‘Mix Design Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Hot-Mix Types (MS-2)". 6th Edition, 1997.