American Journal of Biomedical Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-3947 ISSN (Online): 2328-3955 Website: Editor-in-chief: Hari K. Koul
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015, 3(3), 35-39
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-3-3-1
Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Thrombolytic and Cytotoxic activities of an Ornamental medicinal plant: Byttneria pilosa

Mubarik Yusuf Ibrahim1, Prawej Ansari1, 2, , AKM Riasat-ul-Islam2, Mahmuda Sultana3, Nadia Akter Zhumur2 and Shah Mohammed Shafi2

1Department of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Chittagong, 154/A, College Road, Chittagong-4203, Bangladesh

2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, North South University, Dhaka-1229, Bangladesh

3State University of Bangladesh, 138, Mirpur Road, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh

Pub. Date: June 15, 2015

Cite this paper:
Mubarik Yusuf Ibrahim, Prawej Ansari, AKM Riasat-ul-Islam, Mahmuda Sultana, Nadia Akter Zhumur and Shah Mohammed Shafi. Evaluation of Thrombolytic and Cytotoxic activities of an Ornamental medicinal plant: Byttneria pilosa. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2015; 3(3):35-39. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-3-3-1


Purpose: The rapidly growing incidence of ischemic stroke caused by thrombosis of the arterial vessels is one of the major factors of death in the present world. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the chosen herbal preparations possess thrombolytic activity or not and aimed to find out its toxicity. Methods: An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of the crude extract of B. pilosa, streptokinase was used as a positive control and water as a negative control. In another part, we used Brine shrimp lethality bioassay method to measure the cytotoxic potency of the plant extract. Results: In the in vitro thrombolytic model, methanolic extract of B. pilosa showed significant (p <0.002) clot lysis activity with 46.20 ± 2.274% when compared with positive control Streptokinase (82.60 ± 2.45%) and negative control distilled water (11.29 ± 0.677%). Other part of our study showed moderate or little bit low activity with LC50 of 216.7µg/ml. Conclusions: Our study suggests that thrombolytic activity of B. pilosa could be considered as very promising and beneficial for the Bangladeshi traditional medicine. Lower effects in cytotoxic activity finding may be due to insufficient quantities of toxic metabolite or antitumor component in the extract. In vivo clot dissolving property and active components of the extract for clot lysis could lead the plants for their therapeutic uses. However, further work will establish whether, the phytochemicals from this plant could be incorporated as a thrombolytic agent for the improvement of the patients suffering from diseases like atherosclerosis or embolism.

antitumor atherosclerosis B. pilosa Brine shrimp thrombolysis

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Elumalai A, Eswariah MC, Chowdary VCH, Kumar R, Anusha M and Naresh K; Screening of thrombolytic activity of Bougainvillea glabra leaves extract by In-Vitro; Asian J Res Pharm Sci; 2012; 2(4):134-136.
[2]  Emran TB, Rahman MA, Uddin MMN, Rahman MM, Dash R, Layzu C and Uddin MZ; Effects of organic extracts and their different fractions of five Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis; BMC Compl Alt Med; 2015; 15:128-36.
[3]  Hossain MK, Hassan MM, Parvin MN, Hasan MM, Islam MS and Haque MA; Antimicrobial, cytotoxic and thrombolytic activity of Cassia senna leaves (family: Fabaceae); J App Pharm Sci; 2012; 2(6): 186-190.
[4]  Gennaro AR. Remington; The Science and Practice of Pharmacy; Thrombolytic agents; 20 th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; New York; 2000; 1256-1257.
[5]  Sweta P, Rajpal SK, Jayant YD, Hemant JP, Girdhar MD and Hatim FD; Development of an in vitro model to study clot lysis activity of thrombolytic drugs; Throm J; 2006; 4(14):1-4.
[6]  Collen D; Coronary thrombolysis: streptokinase or recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator; Ann Intern Med; 1990; 112: 529-538.
[7]  Marder VJ; Recombinant streptokinase – opportunity for an improved agent; Blood Coagul Fibrin; 1993; 4: 1039-1040.
[8]  Demrow HS, Slane PR, Folts JD; Administration of wine and grape juice inhibits in vivo platelet activity and thrombosis in stenosed canine coronary arteries; Circulation; 1995; 91:1182-1188.
[9]  Basta G, Lupi C, Lazzerini G, Chiarelli P, L'Abbate A, Rovai D; Therapeutic effect of diagnostic ultrasound on enzymatic thrombolysis: An in vitro study on blood of normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease; Thromb Haemost; 2004; 91: 1078-1083.
[10]  Yamamoto J, Yamada K, Naemura A, Yamashita T and Arai R; Testing various herbs for antithrombotic effect; Nutrition; 2005; 21:580-587.
[11]; cited 6 April 2015.
[12]  Islam A, Siddik AB, Hanee U, Guha A, Zaman F, Mokarroma U, Zahan H, Jabber S, Naurin S, Kabir H, Jahan S and Rahmatullah M; Ethnomedicinal practices of Chakma tribal healer practicing among a Marma community in Rangamati district, Bangladesh; World J Pharm Pharma Sci; 2015; 4(3): 180-188.
[13]  Rahman MA; Indigenous knowledge of herbal medicine in Bangladesh, 3 treatment of skin diseases by tribal communities of the hill tracts districts; Bangladesh J Bot; 2010; 39(2): 169-177.
[14]  Rahman MA, Uddin SB and Wilcock CC; Medicinal plants used by Chakma tribe in the hill tracts districts of Bangladesh; Indian J Trad Know; 2007; 6(3): 508-517.
[15]  A. Ghani; 1st ed.; Textbook of Pharmacognosy; Institution of Medical Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2005.
[16]  Rahman MA, Sultana R, Emran TB, Islam MS, Chakma JS, Rashid HU, et al; Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity; BMC Compl Alt Med; 2013; 13(25):1472-6882.
[17]  Prasad S, Kashyap RS, Deopujari JY, Purohit HJ, Taori GM and Daginawala HF; Development of an in vitro model to study clot lysis activity of thrombolytic drugs; Thromb J; 2006; 4:14.
[18]  Goldstein AL and Kalkan SM; Principles of Drug Action; 2nd ed; Willey Biochemical Health Publications; 1974; 376-381.
[19]  Meyer BB, Ferringi NR, Futman FJ, Jacobsen LB, Nichols DE and Mclaughlin JL; Brine shrimp a convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents; Planta Medica; 1982; 5: 31-34.
[20]  Libby P, Ridker PM and Hansson GK; Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis; Nature; 2011; 473: 317-325.
[21]  Fuentes E, Guzmán L, Alarcón M, Moore R and Palomo I; Thrombolytic/fibrinolytic mechanism of natural products; Fibrinolysis and Thrombolysis; chapter 5; 2014; 107-121.
[22]  Ananyeva NM; Kouiavskaia DV; Shima M and Saenko EL; Intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation contributes to thrombogenicity of atherosclerotic plaque; Blood; 2002; 99: 4475-4485.
[23]  Zinkstok SM, Vermeulen M, Stam J, de Haan RJ and Roos YB; Antiplatelet therapy in combination with rt-PA thrombolysis in ischemic stroke (ARTIS): rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial; Cerebrovasc Dis; 2010; 29: 79-81.
[24]  Rahman MA, Sultana R, Bin Emran T, Islam MS; Chakma JS, Rashid HU and Hasan CM; Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity; BMC Compl Alt Med; 2013; 13: 25.
[25]  Yamada K, Naemura A, Sawashita N, Noguchi Y and Yamamoto J; An onion variety has natural antithrombotic effect as assessed by thrombosis/thrombolysis models in rodents; Thromb Res; 2004; 114: 213-220.
[26]  Suzuki Y, Kondo K, Matsumoto Y, Zhao BQ, Otsuguro K, Maeda T, Tsukamoto Y, Urano T and Umemura K; Dietary supplementation of fermented soybean, natto, suppresses intimal thickening and modulates the lysis of mural thrombi after endothelial injury in rat femoral artery; Life Sci; 2003; 73: 1289-1298.
[27]  Rajput MS, Mathur V, Agrawal P, Chandrawanshi HK and Pilaniya U; Fibrinolytic activity of kaempferol isolated from the fruits of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley; Nat Prod Res; 2011; 25: 1870-1875.
[28]  Licciardi PV and Underwood JR; Plant-derived medicines: a novel class of immunological adjuvants; Int Immunopharmacol; 2011; 11(3): 390-8.
[29]  Potterat O and Hamburger M; Drug discovery and development with plant-derived compounds; Prog Drug Res; 2008; 65(45): 47-118.
[30]  Verstraete M; Third-generation thrombolytic drugs; Am J Med; 2000; 109(1):52-8.
[31]  McLauglin JL, Chang CJ and Smith DL; Simple bench-top bioassays (brine shrimp and potato discs) for the discovery of plant antitumour compounds. In: Human Medicinal Agents from Plants; Kinghorn AD and Balandrin MF; (Eds.), ACS Symposium 534, American Chemical Society, Washington, D. C.; 1993: 112-137.
[32]  Moreira MD, Picanço MC, Barbosa LC, Guedes RN, Barros EC and Campos MR; Compounds from Ageratum conyzoides: isolation, structural elucidation and insecticidal activity; Pest Manag Sci; 2007; 63: 615-621.
[33]  Okwori AEJ, Dina CO, Junaid S, Okeke IO, Adetunji JA and Olabode AO; Antibacterial activities of Ageratum conyzoides extracts on selected bacterial pathogens; Int J Micro; 2007; 4: 1937-1949.