Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2328-3912 ISSN (Online): 2328-3920 Website: Editor-in-chief: Alejandro González Medina
Open Access
Journal Browser
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020, 8(6), 379-386
DOI: 10.12691/aees-8-6-8
Open AccessArticle

De-fluoridation of Groundwater using Precipitation Method in a Region of Nagaur District, Rajasthan, India

Ravi Sharma1, and B.R Rojh2

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur-342005, Rajasthan, India

2Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur-342005, Rajasthan, India

Pub. Date: September 06, 2020

Cite this paper:
Ravi Sharma and B.R Rojh. De-fluoridation of Groundwater using Precipitation Method in a Region of Nagaur District, Rajasthan, India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020; 8(6):379-386. doi: 10.12691/aees-8-6-8


Safe drinking water is a human right. Groundwater is polluted by number of chemical elements which includes fluoride too. Deteriorated quality of drinking water due to high concentration of fluoride is one of the major issues in India including in the state of Rajasthan. Although various de-fluoridation methods are available, in Indian context the Nalgonda Technique and Activated Alumina has been mostly adopted. Alum is used as the coagulant in Nalgonda method. However, it has some disadvantages like high sludge volume, residual aluminium and wearing effects on the treatment structure. In Nalgonda Technique, residual Aluminium in treated water is found to be higher than the permissible limit, i.e. 0.2mg/L. Therefore, an alternative compound other than Alum for de-fluoridation assumes great importance. We aim to reduce the use of Alum in this research work. Ferric Ammonium Sulphate was used as precipitating agent for removal of fluoride ion from groundwater collected from few localities of Nagaur district of Rajasthan State. In order to remove fluoride ion from water, standard solutions of fluoride and Ferric Ammonium Sulphate of different concentrations were prepared and initial and final concentrations of Fluoride solutions were determined by Fluoride ion meter. The affinity of Ferric Ammonium Sulphate for fluoride ion was studied using different solutions as the Sodium fluoride solution containing Fluoride ion. The removal of fluoride ion increases with increasing volume of 2% and 5% solution of Ferric Ammonium Sulphate.

fluoride groundwater clinical manifestations coagulation fluorosis potash alum; polyelectrolyte; precipitation reverse osmosis and rainwater harvesting

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Bulusu, K.R., Sundaresan, B.B., Nawlakhe, W.G., Kulkarni, D.N., Thergaonkar, V.P.1979, ¡®Fluorides in water, Defluoridation Methods and their limitations' IE(I)JI., Vol.60, October', 1-25.
[2]  C.D.Nava, M.S.Rios, M.T. Olguin. 2003, Sorption of fluoride ions from aqueous solution and well drinking water by thermally heated hydrocalcite, sep. Sci. Technol. 38(1), 131-147.
[3]  Cirulaire Interministerielie du 07 Mai 2001. Relative au Progamme National de Sante Bucco dentaire en milieu scolaire.
[4]  Anon, 1994. Resource Atlas of Rajasthan, D. S. T, Govt. of Rajasthan. 231p.
[5]  Anon, 2009. Groundwater Scenario of Nagaur District. Central Groundwater Board, Jaipur, 22p.
[6]  Anon, 2013a. Hydrogeological Atlas of Rajasthan Nagaur District, Groundwater Department, Rajasthan
[7]  Roy, A.B and Jakhar, S.R., 2002. Geology of Rajasthan (Northwest India). Precambrian to Recent., Scientific Publisher, Jodhpur, 421p.
[8]  Anon, 2013b. Groundwater Information, Nagaur District, Central Groundwater Board, Rajasthan, 15p.
[9]  Anon, 2017. Report on Aquifer Mapping and Ground Water Management, Nagaur District. Central Groundwater Board, Rajasthan, 28p.
[10]  Anon, 2012. Indian Standard Drinking Water - Specification. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. Pp-1-163.
[11]  Meenakshi, R.C. Maheshwari, S.K. Jain, A. Gupta. 2004, Use of membreance technique for portable water production, Desalination. 170(2), 105-112.
[12]  Maheshwari, R., Rani, B. and Gupta, N. 2007. Fluoride Toxicity. Everything About Water, No.7, pp.31-37.
[13]  Maheshwari, R. 2007. Fluoride Toxicity: An Alarming Threat., Proceedings of International Conference on Toxicology, Toxicogenomics and Occupational Health, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, MP.
[14]  Maheshwari, R. 2007. Fluoride Distribution: Recent Advances in Mitigation Strategies for Sustainabilty of Modern Styled Era, Proceedings of International Conference on Recent Advances in Environmental Protection, St Jonh's College, Agra, UP.
[15]  Maheshwari, R, Rani, B., Yadav, R. K. and Sharma, S. 2013b. Fluoride Contamination in Groundwater of Rajasthan: Its Deleterious Impacts and Preventive Measures. Journal of Biological and Chemical Research, 30 (1), pp. 246-253.
[16]  Maheshwari, R., Sharma, A., Sharma, S., Yadav, R. K., Kumar, M. and Rani, B. 2013. Reverse Osmosis: An Emerging Technology for the Production of Safe Drinking Water. Journal of Biological and Chemical Research, 28 (1 & 2), pp. 30-42.
[17]  Whitford, G. M. 1996. The Mechanism and Toxicity of Fluoride, 2nd Revise Edition. (Basel, Karger), pp. 156.
[18]  WHO, fluoride in drinking water, IWA publishing, London, 2006
[19]  Yao, H. and Wang, G. 1988. Acute and Chronic Experimental Studies on Joint Effect of Fluoride and Arsenic. Chin. J Prevent Med., 22, pp. 284.
[20]  Y. Min, T. Hashimoto, N. Hoshi, H. Myoga. 1999, Fluoride removal in a fixed bed packed with granular calcite, Water Res. 33(16), 3395-3402.
[21]  Maheshwari, R., Sharma, S., Chauhan, A. K. and Sharma, M. 2013. To Confiscate Fluoride from Groundwater. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Bioscience, 2 (3), pp. 306-313. Ministere de la sant¨¦ et la population et OMS programme National de sant¨¦ Bucco- dentainre en milieu scolaire, Mai 2001.
[22]  Rammohan Rao, N.V. and Bhaskaran, G.S 1964.'Endemic Fluorosis study of Distribution of Fluoride in Water Sources in the Karnoon District of Andhra Pradesh'. Indian Journal of Medical Laboratories, Vol 52, 182.
[23]  Rodier J et Coll., L analayse de leau: eaux naturelles, eaux residuaires, eau de mer., 8 editon : paris (2005), pp299 a 310 et pp 2019a221.
[24]  Z. Amer, B. Bariou, N. Mameri, M. Taky, S. Nicolas, A. Elmidaoui. 2001, Fluoride removal from brackish water by electrodialysis, Desalination 133, 215-223.