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Brownlee, M., Aiello, L. P., Cooper, M. E., Vinik, A. I., Plutzky, J. and Boulton, A.J.M., “Chapter 33 - Complications of Diabetes Mellitus,” William’s textbook of endocrinology (13th ed.), pp. 1484-1581, 2016.

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Food and Nutrient Intake of Filipinos with Diabetes

1Department of Science and Technology, Food and Nutrition Research Institute, 1631, Taguig City, Philippines

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020, Vol. 8 No. 6, 258-267
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-8-6-3
Copyright © 2020 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Imelda Angeles-Agdeppa. Food and Nutrient Intake of Filipinos with Diabetes. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020; 8(6):258-267. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-8-6-3.

Correspondence to: Imelda  Angeles-Agdeppa, Department of Science and Technology, Food and Nutrition Research Institute, 1631, Taguig City, Philippines. Email:


Diabetes is considered as a worldwide public health problem and its prevalence in the Philippines has been increasing throughout the past decade. Dietary intake is a leading factor that affects diabetes development. Thus, the aim of the study is to analyze the food and nutrient intakes of Filipino adults with type 2 diabetes and to determine the underlying relationship between diabetes and dietary intake. The participants were 1,087 Filipinos with diabetes, ages 18 years and over from the 2013 National Nutrition Survey. In this study, two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were administered through face-to-face interviews by registered nutritionist-dietitians. The amount of consumed foods and beverages were estimated through standard household measures or food weighing. The energy and nutrient content of foods were assessed by utilizing the FNRI-Individual Dietary Evaluation System (IDES). Mean and usual energy and nutrient intake distributions were assessed using software established by Iowa State University (PC-SIDE version 1.02) and the evaluation of each macronutrient’s percentage contribution to total energy intake was done using the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR). Results of the study showed that Filipinos with diabetes have inadequate protein intake (53%) as well as micronutrient intake, including vitamin C (96%), thiamin (78%), riboflavin (85%), folate (87%), calcium (96%) and vitamin A (66%). Major sources of energy were mainly from carbohydrates (70.1%) consisting of rice, sugar-sweetened beverages, bread and sugar. A weak positive correlation was found between energy, macronutrient intake and fasting blood glucose. Findings of the study indicate that diabetes is affected by one’s dietary intake yet further research is required to define the role of micronutrients in diabetes management.