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Food Sources and Lysine Intakes of Filipinos: Why Is It Important?

1Department of Science and Technology- Food and Nutrition Research Institute, NCR Philippines

2Department of Science and Technology- Science Education Institute, NCR Philippines

Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020, Vol. 8 No. 4, 201-211
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-8-4-7
Copyright © 2020 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Imelda Angeles-Agdeppa, Frances Pola S. Arias, Marvin B. Toledo. Food Sources and Lysine Intakes of Filipinos: Why Is It Important?. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2020; 8(4):201-211. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-8-4-7.

Correspondence to: Imelda  Angeles-Agdeppa, Department of Science and Technology- Food and Nutrition Research Institute, NCR Philippines. Email:


Lysine is one of the essential amino acids for normal growth and development. However, it is the limiting amino acid in rice which is the staple food of Filipinos. The aim of this study is to evaluate the lysine intakes of selected Filipino populations and determine the vulnerable population groups that are at risk of having inadequacy of lysine intake by locale and wealth quintile. The data is obtained from the 2013 National Nutrition Survey with about 8,592 sample households (response rate: 87.7%) and 35,884 individuals used in the current analysis: 6-11 months old (n=355), 1-3 years old (n=1,450), 4-10 yo (n=6,909), 11-14 yo (n=4,060), 15-18 yo (n=3,204), and 19-49 yo (n=19,906). Food intake was collected on 2 non-consecutive days. The first food recall was collected from all household members. The second day recall was only from a random sub-sample of 50% of those members with a first day recall. Energy and nutrient content of foods were processed using an electronic Individual Dietary Evaluation System containing the updated Philippines Food Composition Table. Mean and usual lysine intake was estimated using the PC Software for Intake Distribution Estimation version 1.02. The mean intake of lysine of Filipinos is adequate across all physiologic age groups. However, the prevalence of lysine inadequacy was highest among 6 to 11 months old children (54%). For other agegroups, prevalence were 14% among 1-3 yo, about 2% among 4-10 yo; 8% among 11-14 yo; 13% among 15-18 yo, and 15% among 19-49 yo. Lysine inadequacy was also most common among females, the poorest sectors, and in the rural areas. Lysine intake of stunted children is lower than normal children. The result of this study is a step forward to design immediate interventions to address the marked inadequate lysine intake of the 6 to 11 months old infants.