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Hugo, C. and Mike, L. (2001). Quality Protein Maize: Improved Nutrition and Livelihoods for the poor. In: Sustainable Maize Production Systems for Nepal. Proceedings of Maize Symposium, Held December 3-5, 2001, Kathmandu, Nepal.

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Article

Review of Quality Protein Maize as Food and Feed: In Alleviating Protein Deficiency in Developing Countries

1Ethiopia Meat and Dairy Industry Development Institute, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia


American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2017, Vol. 5 No. 3, 99-105
DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-5-3-4
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tekeba Eshetie. Review of Quality Protein Maize as Food and Feed: In Alleviating Protein Deficiency in Developing Countries. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2017; 5(3):99-105. doi: 10.12691/ajfn-5-3-4.

Correspondence to: Tekeba  Eshetie, Ethiopia Meat and Dairy Industry Development Institute, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Email: tekebanega@gmail.com

Abstract

Maize is the major food and feed source in most parts of the world. In Ethiopia, it ranks second in area coverage after Teff and first in production. But maize alike other cereals, is deficient in certain essential amino acids like lysine and tryptophan. Therefore, this study is initiated to review the pros and cons of other maize variety called Quality Protein Maize as food, feed and other industrial uses and to suggest recommendations based on the findings. For the purpose, a number of national and international research findings were collected and used. The major lessons from this study indicated that, Quality Protein Maize has got a similar yield potential and disease resistance with normal maize and its biological value is about 80% whereas normal maize has got 40-75%. It has also 90% the biological value of cow's milk with a true digestibility level of 60% which is greater than normal maize. The amino acid profile specially lysine and tryptophan is 2-3 fold higher than normal maize. Feeding of Quality Protein Maize to children in a number of countries indicated that the anthropometric measures are higher for the children fed with Quality Protein Maize than normal maize fed groups and also increased the intelligent quotient. Feeding of Quality Protein Maize to pregnant women showed a significant impact upon the health of the babies and mothers. The impact of Quality Protein Maize feeding to old age people reflected in their relief from gastric and other indigestion ailments. Feeding values of Quality Protein Maize to broiler chicks enhanced growth rate and meat quality. When broiler chicks fed with the combination of Quality Protein Maize and sesame seed meal, it can safely replace synthetic amino acids with better economic advantage than feeding with synthetic amino acids. In the case of layers, feeding of Quality Protein Maize improved age at first egg laying, egg production, and egg quality parameters. The major problems associated to the scaling ups of Quality Protein Maize include limited promotion, insufficient demonstration and poor awareness creation on its quality. On top of these, literally there is no premium price for the production of Quality Protein Maize and there is no special incentives for those producers. Therefore, research results should be properly documented and shared with the respective stakeholders, continuous awareness creation, demonstration and extension activities to producers and consumers should be done so as to use the potential in a proper manner. For effective promotion, back ward linkages and contract farming is also important to ensure sustainable supply of seed. It is also equally important to involve private players for seed production and link them with industries and encourage farmers to use yellow quality protein maize variety to increase the beta carotene contents of the diets.

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