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Villamero, R.C. (2013). Achieving learning for all through inclusive education perspectives and practices. Available: [Accessed: July 30, 2016].

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Estimating Vulnerability in Promoting Inclusive Education in the Philippines

1College of Education, Jose Rizal Memorial State University, Dapitan City, Philippines

American Journal of Educational Research. 2017, Vol. 5 No. 3, 332-337
DOI: 10.12691/education-5-3-15
Copyright © 2017 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Patrick G. Galleto, Narcisa S. Bureros. Estimating Vulnerability in Promoting Inclusive Education in the Philippines. American Journal of Educational Research. 2017; 5(3):332-337. doi: 10.12691/education-5-3-15.

Correspondence to: Patrick  G. Galleto, College of Education, Jose Rizal Memorial State University, Dapitan City, Philippines. Email:


Inclusive education ensures that all children have access to an appropriate, relevant, affordable and effective education within their community. Yet, inclusive education is found difficult to build in poorer developing countries. The study looked into the challenges of inclusiveness for teacher education along policy, curriculum, materials, and methodology of State Universities and Colleges (SUCs) in the Philippines offering teacher education programs to estimate their vulnerability. Descriptive survey method of research was employed with the aid of questionnaire checklist which was administered to 89 Deans of the College of Teacher Education of SUCs in the country. Principal component analysis model was obtained and used to determine the coefficients of resilience and vulnerability indices. The study revealed that teacher education institutions in the country were intensely vulnerable in the challenges on policy, curriculum, materials, and methodology. This necessitates that inclusive education policy should be part of the broader dynamics and processes of the policy-making body. Teachers should be learning about, experiencing, and practicing inclusive approaches to teaching and learning throughout their professional development to promoting inclusive education. The needs to be matching revision of the materials used in teacher education programs should be seen essential, and inclusive teaching methodology should be intrinsically linked to and mutually supportive of inclusive curricula.