Article citationsMore >>

Oxford, R. L., “Language learning styles and strategies,” in M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign Language, Australia: Heinle & Heinle, 2001, 359-366.

has been cited by the following article:


Strategy Instruction for Macao EFL Students

1School of Health Sciences, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao

American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, Vol. 2 No. 11, 990-1004
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-11-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mei Lan Chan. Strategy Instruction for Macao EFL Students. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(11):990-1004. doi: 10.12691/education-2-11-1.

Correspondence to: Mei  Lan Chan, School of Health Sciences, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao. Email:


Strategy Instruction (SI) has been in much debate on its effectiveness on students’ language learning strategies (LLS) use, proficiency and the four main English skills (speaking, listening, writing and reading). In addition, most research studies on SI focus on one main English skill and train students with one or a few groups of LLS. Still fewer research has looked into the details of changes (or students’ learning processes) using diaries. This research used an embedded mixed methods quasi-experimental design to collect in-depth data to assess the effectiveness of SI on higher education nursing students’ changes of LLS, English achievement and learning processes. These quantitative and qualitative methods included questionnaires, group interviews, diaries, pre- and post-tests and class observations. One treatment group and one comparison group, a total of 59 university freshmen in Macao SAR participated in this study. All six groups of LLS (memory-related, cognitive, compensatory, metacognitive, affective and social) were taught and their effects on all four main English skills were discussed. Quantitatively, two groups (affective and compensatory) of LLS use and qualitatively, the learning processes of students had been improved after SI but no improvement was obtained in students’ achievement from the Oxford Placement Tests quantitatively. In this study, recommendations are made for utilizing SI in improving LLS in EFL.