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Prazeres, A.; Carvalho, F.; Rivas, J. 2012. Cheese whey management: A review. J. Environ. Manag. 110: 48-68.

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Article

Improving the Nutritive Value and Quality Parameters of Gluten Free Bread by Using Natural and Economical Ingredients

1Food Technology Research Institute ARC, Egypt


American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2020, Vol. 8 No. 6, 257-262
DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-8-6-5
Copyright © 2020 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Shereen L. Nassef, Hoda H. Hafez. Improving the Nutritive Value and Quality Parameters of Gluten Free Bread by Using Natural and Economical Ingredients. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2020; 8(6):257-262. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-8-6-5.

Correspondence to: Shereen  L. Nassef, Food Technology Research Institute ARC, Egypt. Email: shereenlntbg@hotmail.com

Abstract

Absence of gluten in gluten free bread is an important technological challenge, in this study sweet whey protein powder and fresh yogurt were added individually and together at 10 and 15 %. (W/W corn flour). Different levels of yogurt and whey protein powder were incorporated into gluten-free bread formulations. Bread quality parameters i.e. chemical, physical, textural, staling rate, water activity, sensory and economical evaluation were performed to assess the nutritional and technological qualities of the free gluten bread. Results confirmed that the yogurt and whey protein addition led to a significant increase in protein, fat, ash, crude fibres, calories, Ce, Fe and Zn content in bread while significant decrease in available carbohydrates comparing with the control. Textural profile analysis showed a decrease in hardness, gumminess and chewiness when whey protein and yogurt were added to bread formula either they added individually or together. The staling rate indicated that whey protein and fresh yogurt caused retarding in the staling rate and the whey protein bread can be kept up to 3 days with good freshness. Whey protein or yogurt addition to bread formula show a significant increase in appearance, crust colour, taste, texture, layer separation and overall score. Rising levels of supplementation with whey protein and yogurt generally caused an increase in all sensory scores of free gluten bread comparing with the control, this improvement was noticed when whey protein and yogurt were added together. Water content and water activity measurements was in the allowance range, so that water activity predicted the stability and keeping safety and quality of the prepared bread. The gluten - free bread was safe for up to 3 days for consumer. Whey protein and fresh yogurt specially when they added together improving the daily diet of celiac people, so whey protein bread and yogurt bread enhanced the nutritional value of gluten free bread such as protein, Ca, Fe and Zn, also it had good efficiency of covering the recommended daily allowances (RDA %). The cost of fortified bread with whey protein and yogurt was increased by 9.84% to 44.09 % as compared with the control cost, but that increase in the cost can be adjusted to consumer by health benefits.

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