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Why publish with SciEP?

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Science and Education publishing (SciEP) is an ideal outlet for the publication of your significant research findings. SciEP’s main goal is to increase the importance of science worldwide, to give all researchers equal opportunity to share ideas, develop their career and for their work to have impact around the world.

Publication of your significant research findings in Journals of SciEP will enable your research to reach the widest available audience in your field of expertise. Your published papers will be available online with Open Access Policy and will be available for immediate citation.

  • Open Access – All the journals in SciEP are free from all access barriers, allowing for the widest possible global dissemination of your work, leading to more citations.
  • Online Submission System – An efficient, easy, and user friendly online submission system reduces the overall time from submission to publication.
  • Rapid Publication – Online submission, rapid peer review and production make the process of publishing your article simple and efficient.
  • Peer-reviewed – All SciEP journals have a high standard of peer review. SciEP Peer Reviewer Platform(
  • Extensive Indexing – All articles published in SciEP journals are included in some major bibliographic databases so that your work can be found easily and cited by researchers around the world.

Plagiarism Policy

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Whether intentional or not, plagiarism is a serious violation. Plagiarism is the copying of ideas, text, data and other creative work (e.g. tables, figures and graphs) and presenting it as original research without proper citation. We define plagiarism as a case in which a paper reproduces another work with at least 25% similarity and without citation.

If evidence of plagiarism is found before/after acceptance or after publication of the paper, the author will be offered a chance for rebuttal. If the arguments are not found to be satisfactory, the manuscript will be retracted and the author sanctioned from publishing papers for a period to be determined by the responsible Editor(s).

Instructions to Authors

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Online submission of manuscript is now mandatory for all types of paper.

Please prepare your manuscript following the instructions for authors given below before submitting it online at If submission is completed successfully, a paper ID will be allocated to you and an e-mail acknowledgement will follow. All subsequent correspondence should be sent to the Assistant Editor, David Rain, at

Required files

Manuscripts must be in Microsoft Word format only.

Preparation of Manuscripts

Manuscripts should be in English and written in a concise, straightforward style. Authors not fluent in English are advised to have their manuscript checked by a colleague with a good command of the language. The manuscript should present scientific findings which are essentially new and which have not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. Review papers are also welcomed.

1. Format:

Prior to submission, authors who believe their manuscript would benefit from professional editing are encouraged to use language-editing and copyediting services. Obtaining this service is the responsibility of the author, and should be done before initial submission. A template (download) is available to guide authors in the preparation of the manuscript.

2. Length:

Although there is no page limit for a Regular Paper, it is strongly suggested that a complete manuscript be no less than 5 pages and no more than 25 pages (10 pt, double-spaced, including figures, tables, and references).

3. Sections of Manuscript:

Articles should be organized into the following sections:

Reviews and Mini-reviews - Article Title, Authors’ names and institutional affiliations, Abstract and Keywords, Introduction, Main text (divided into subheadings), Conclusions, Acknowledgements (if any), Statement of Competing Interests, List of Abbreviations (if any), References.

Research Articles - Article Title, Authors’ names and institutional affiliations, Abstract and Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgements (if any), Statement of Competing Interests, List of Abbreviations(if any), References

3.1. Title (20 words or less)

The title should accurately, clearly, and concisely reflect the emphasis and content of the paper. The title must be brief and grammatically correct. Titles do not normally include numbers, acronyms, abbreviations or punctuation. They should include sufficient detail for indexing purposes but be general enough for readers outside the field to appreciate what the paper is about. The title should be no more than 20 words in length.

3.2. Authors’ names and institutional affiliations

This should include the full author names (with no titles or qualifications), institutional addresses (Department, Institute, City, Post/Zip code, Country), and email addresses for all authors. Authors and affiliations must be linked using superscript numerals. The corresponding author should also be indicated.

3.3. Abstract and Keywords

The abstract should be comprehensive but concise consisting of no more than 300 words and should be structured to give a brief introduction to the study, main findings of the study, conclusions drawn from the study and their significance. Do not include references, headings and non-standard abbreviation. While the abstract is conceptually divided into three sections (Background, Methodology/Principal Findings, and Conclusions/Significance), please do not apply these distinct headings to the abstract within the article file. Please do not include any citations and avoid specialist abbreviations. Also provide 5-7 carefully chosen keywords.

3.4. Introduction

Here authors should make a case for the study, providing a brief literature survey (avoid citing literature older than ten years, unless absolutely necessary) and background to the study, the hypothesis and the significance of the presented research.

3.5. Materials and Methods

Experimental procedures should be given in sufficient detail to allow these to be replicated by other researchers. The source of the various reagents and materials used in the study should be given, where possible.

3.6. Results

The results section should provide details of all of the experiments that are required to support the conclusions of the paper. There is no specific word limit for this section, but details of experiments that are peripheral to the main thrust of the article and that detract from the focus of the article should not be included. The section may be divided into subsections, each with a concise subheading. Large datasets, including raw data, should be submitted as supporting files; these are published online alongside the accepted article. We advise that the results section be written in past tense.

3.7. Discussion

This section should present comprehensive analysis of the results in the light of any previous research. Discussion may also be combined with results.

3.8. Conclusions

Conclusion section should bring out the significance of your research paper, show how you’ve brought closure to the research problem, and point out remaining gaps in knowledge by suggesting issues for further research.

3.9. Acknowledgements

The authors should first acknowledge the source of funding for the research presented in their article followed by any personal credits.

3.10. Statement of Competing Interests

Include an explicit disclosure of any competing interests (financial or others) that may have influenced the study or the conclusions drawn from the study. If none, state 'the authors have no competing interests'.

3.11. List of Abbreviations

Define all non-standard abbreviations in parenthesis on their first appearance in the text as well as provide a list. Standard abbreviations need not to be included in the list.

3.12. References

The reference list appears at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper (with the exception of personal communications) must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text. Only published or accepted manuscript should be included in the reference list. Papers that have been submitted but not yet accepted should not be cited. Limited citation of unpublished work should be included in the body of the text only as "unpublished data".


As you write your report, you will cite your references. A citation to a reference in the body of the text is indicated by a bracketed number corresponding to the reference number in the References section. Example: During high stress periods, individuals should focus on the situation-specific tasks rather than rely on general knowledge structures. [1]

Reference Formats


A complete reference should contain the name(s) of the author(s) and/or editor(s), the title of the article, the name of the book or conference proceedings where appropriate, and bibliographic information about the article such as the name of the publisher, the city of publication, and the page numbers. The basic concept is that the reference should be sufficiently complete so that the reader could readily find the reference and can judge the authority and objectivity of the reference.

All author names appear as Last name, Initials. For example, if Kirsten Patrick is the primary author and Alice M. Agogino is the second author, the correct appearance of the author names would be: Patrick, K., and Agogino, A.M.


Standard format

Authors, Title(in italics), Publisher, City of Publication, Year of Publication, page numbers(if appropriate).


1. Fogg, B.J, Persuasive technology: using computers to change what we think and do, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Boston, 2003, 30-35.

Journal articles

Standard format

Authors, "Title of the article", Journal name(in italics), Volume (Issue), Pages, Month Year.


Hirsh, H., Coen, M.H., Mozer, M.C., Hasha, R. and Flanagan, J.L, "Room service, AI-style", IEEE intelligent systems, 14 (2). 8-19. July 2002.

Conference Proceedings

Standard format

Authors, "Title of the article", in Title of conference(in italics),Publisher, Pages.


Leclercq, P. and Heylighen, "A. 5,8 Analogies per hour: A designer's view on analogical reasoning", in 7th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Design, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 285-303.


Standard format

Authors, Title of E-book(in italics),Publisher, Date of original publication.
[Format] Available: Source.


T. Eckes, The Developmental Social Psychology of Gender, Lawrence Erlbaum, 2000.


Standard format

Authors, "Title of Article", Title of Journal(in italics), Volume (Issue), pages, month year.
[Format] Available: Database Name (if appropriate), article number (if given), internet address. [Accessed date of access].


A. Altun, "Understanding hypertext in the context of reading on the web: Language learners' experience", Current Issues in Education, 6(12), July 2003. [Online].
[Online]. Available: [Accessed Dec. 2, 2004].

3.13. Tables

The table title should be concise, no more than one sentence. The rest of the table legend and any footnotes should be placed below the table. Footnotes can be used to explain abbreviations.

Tables must be cell-based, such as would be produced in a spreadsheet program or in Microsoft Word. Do not provide tables as graphic objects. Tables must be no larger than one printed page (7inches x 9.5inches). Larger tables can be published as online supporting information. Bold and italics formatting will be preserved in the published version; however, more extensive formatting will be lost. Do not include color, shading, lines, rules, text boxes, tabs, returns, or pictures within the table.

All tables must be numbered consecutively (in Arabic numbers). Table headings should be placed (centered) above the table. Place tables as close as possible to where they are mentioned in the main text. All Tables should be referred to in the text as Table 1, Table 2, etc.

3.14. Figures

Figures should be as small and simple as is compatible with clarity. The goal is for figures to be comprehensible to readers in other or related disciplines, and to assist their understanding of the paper. Unnecessary figures and parts (panels) of figures should be avoided: data presented in small tables or histograms, for instance, can generally be stated briefly in the text instead. Avoid unnecessary complexity, coloring and excessive detail.

All illustrations should be original drawings or photographic prints of originals. Photographs should be glossy prints. Photocopies are often not good enough and should be avoided. All illustrations must be numbered consecutively, as Fig. 1, Fig. 2. Center figure captions beneath the figure. Do not assemble figures at the back of your article, but place them as close as possible to where they are mentioned in the main text. No part of a figure should go beyond the typing area.

3.15. Figure Legends

The aim of the figure legend should be to describe the key messages of the figure, but the figure should also be discussed in the text. Each legend should have a concise title of no more than 15 words. The legend itself should be succinct, while still explaining all symbols and abbreviations. Avoid lengthy descriptions of methods.

3.16. Equations

Number equations consecutively. Equation numbers, within parentheses, are to position flush right, as in Eq. (1) or equation (1), using a right tab stop.


Note that the formula is centered using a center tab stop. Be sure that the symbols in your formula have been defined before or immediately following the equation. Use "Eq. (1)" or "equation (1)", not "(1)", in the sentences. Notation. Notation must be legible, clear, compact, and consistent with standard usage. In general, acronyms should be defined at first use.

Variables and Vectors. Set single-letter variables in italics (e.g. m). Set vectors in boldface (e.g. E). Derivative "d," abbreviations, and multi-letter identifiers should be set in roman (plain) type (e.g. cos, ∫...dx).

4. Submission self-checklist

Before submitting your manuscript online, please check that all style and format requirements have been carefully followed.

  • English spelling and punctuations are used throughout the paper.
  • The paper is original, not submitted anywhere else.
  • The length of the paper is commensurate with content.
  • The title and headings are brief and catchy.
  • Names and affiliations (including postal codes) of all authors are correct and complete.
  • Figures are of sufficient quality for printing, with clear resolution of detail.
  • Abstract and keywords are provided.
  • All table captions and figure legends are provided.
  • Tables/Figures are properly placed and numbered with brief titles/ captions.
  • References are in standard style.

Publishing process

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The following sections summarize the journals' publishing processes and describe how manuscript are handled from submission to publication. At all stages of the process, you can access the online submission system and find the status of your manuscript.

1 Author submits a manuscript

2 Journal editor screens manuscript

Within one week of being submitted, each journal paper undergoes a preliminary review by the journal editor. The journal editor decides among three options for routing the paper:

Send out for review.

The manuscript meets the basic requirements of SciEP. At least two reviewers will be located by the journal editor, who will send each reviewer a copy of the paper.

Return for revision If your manuscript has not passed the preliminary review, the review comment will be returned to you for revision.

Rejection without peer review While manuscript have to go through the peer review process in order to be published, they can be rejected without peer review. For high-impact, general science journals, the majority of submitted papers may be rejected in this manner. While this may appear surprising or disturbing, it is essential to understand the underlying reasons and the inevitability of this undesired aspect of the research publication process.
There could be many reasons for rejection without review:

  • Content of the article is not within the scope of the journal.
  • Non-conformity with journal style, format or guidelines.
  • Duplication or large overlap with existing work or apparent plagiarism.
  • Results are not novel or significant enough; lead to only an incremental advance in field.
  • Article is too specialized/in-depth or superficial.
  • Limited interest to journal target audience.
  • Poor quality of research.
  • Results or interpretation are too preliminary or speculative.
  • Lack of clarity/conciseness in presentation.

3 Manuscript is peer reviewed

4 Journal editor/editorial board decides whether to publish

Once peer review has been completed, the original author(s) of the article will modify their submission in line with the reviewers' comments, and this is repeated until the editor is satisfied.
Review Decisions by Reviewers and Editors:

1Accept in present form

The reviewer will decide that the manuscript is ready for publication in its present form when at least two reviewers are in agreement. The associate editor will sum up the results of the review and report them to the chief editors. The secretary will then send an acceptance letter to the author on behalf of the chief editors. The paper will be moved to final editing for online publication.

2Revision Required

The reviewer will decide that the paper is not ready for publication and needs revision when at least two reviewers are in agreement. The associate editor will send the reviewers’ comments to the author for revision. The author should include with his(her) resubmitted version a new cover letter that includes a point-by-point response to the reviewers' and editors' comments, including an explanation of how you have altered your manuscript in response to these, and an estimation of the length of the revised version with figures/tables.

3Declined final

The reviewers will decide that the paper is inappropriate for publication when at least two reviewers are in agreement. No revisions will be requested for further consideration. The paper may not be resubmitted without substantial revision.

5 Copy Editing and Typesetting

Copy editing seeks to ensure that an article conforms to the journal's house style, that all of the referencing and labelling is correct, and that there are no spelling or grammatical errors. Typesetting deals with the appearance of the article — layouts, fonts, headings etc., both for print and online publication.

Copy editing and typesetting are carried out by copyeditors (also called subeditors), who refine it so that the text and figures are readable and clear to those outside the immediate field; choose keywords to maximize visibility in online searches as well as suitable for indexing services; and ensure that the papers conform to house style. The copyeditors are happy to give advice to authors whose native language is not English, and will edit those papers with special care.

6 Proof Reading

The typeset first proofs are sent to the author electronically as a PDF. Corrections to the proofs should be minor – authors should not rewrite or make substantial additions.

7 Printing

The final text and cover proofs will undergo a thorough editorial review before they are accepted and sent to print. All papers are published in the print edition and, in PDF and HTML format, in the online edition of the journal, in full.

For Reviewers

We consider manuscript refereeing as a highly-regarded and honorable service to the readers and to the scientific community at large. Reviewers play a pivotal role not only in helping to evaluate individual manuscript but also in determining the overall quality of the journal. Therefore, we take great care when choosing reviewers and take into account their expertise and reputation in the field as well as our own past experience with them.

Reviewers should treat the whole review process and any correspondence with them in this regards, either from the editor or from the publisher, strictly confidential, nor should they discuss the manuscript directly with someone not involved in the review process without the editor's prior consent.

We believe that anonymity of the reviewers is important for an objective review of a manuscript. Therefore, we do not disclose identities of the reviewers to the authors or to other reviewers of the manuscript, during or after the review process, unless a reviewer specifically wants us to do so.

Our aim is to complete the whole review process and publication of a manuscript as promptly as possible in order to keep timeliness of the published research. We therefore ask our reviewers to respond to the editor's initial contact with them as soon as possible but no later than 24 hours, and with their review report within 15 days unless otherwise agreed with the editor.

While writing your report please consider that the authors are most likely to have put enormous efforts in conducting research as well as in writing the manuscript. Therefore, aim your report to be critical but constructive and avoid using offensive and discouraging language. In most cases reviewer's a report is conveyed to the authors as such. However, in rare case if we feel that a reviewer has used unfair language or have revealed any confidential information, we may appropriately edit it. There is a standard form for writing your report. You may complete the standard form and send it to the editor by email. While making a judgment on a manuscript we ask you to consider the following points:

  • Originality: Is the work original and novel? If not why?
  • Interest: Is the work of general or specialized interest?
  • Research question: Is the research question clearly defined and answered?
  • Design: Is the study adequately designed to answer the research question?
  • Abstract: Does it correctly summarize the study?
  • Introduction: Does it provide appropriate basis for the study?
  • Methods: Are methodological details sufficient? Is any presented statistical analysis appropriate and sound? Are any additional statistical tests needed?
  • Results: Are these logically presented and answer the research question?
  • Discussion: Is the literature appropriately and fairly cited? Are the result clearly and justifiably discussed in the light of published literature?
  • Conclusions: Are the claims and inferences drawn from study justified and convincing or do they need further evidence? Please explain. Should the authors have drawn any additional conclusions from the presented data?
  • References: Are they up to date and relevant? Has any relevant reference been omitted?
  • Ethical issue: Does the research raise any ethical concerns regarding the use of animal or human subjects?
  • Overall readability: Is the manuscript clearly and concisely written? If not how could it be improved? Could it be shortened?

Reviewers are welcome to recommended acceptance or rejection of an article. However, the primary purpose of the review is to provide editors with the analytical argument to help them reach a decision. Therefore, if we have decided against a negative or positive recommendation of a reviewer, it does not imply in any way our lack of confidence in the reviewer's opinion or disregard for the reviewer's expertise. It is likely that the other reviewers may have expressed opposite views and, therefore, quite often we have to base our decisions on conflicting reports, one way or the other.

  • A timely return of the reviewers' recommendations is crucial to the publishing process. Late return of reviews is the main element that delays publication.
  • We hope that you will strive to bring to each review your considered expertise, to judge each paper with an open mind, and to find the right point between judging too permissively and too strictly.

For Advertisers

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For Librarians

This Resources for Librarians area is designed to provide you with useful news, tools, creative ideas, and opportunities that can help you promote your online resources to your library community. We hope our site provides all the information you need about SciEP publications and services. If you require additional information or have any questions, please contact us at: