Article citationsMore >>

Inderbir Singh, Pal GP. Human Embryology. 8th ed. India: Mac Millan Publishers Limited; 2007. p. 116.

has been cited by the following article:


Study of Thoracic Vertebral Synostosis in North India

1Department of Anatomy, Rama Medical College, Hapur, UP

American Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2014, Vol. 2 No. 9, 170-172
DOI: 10.12691/ajmcr-2-9-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Preeti Goswami, Yogesh Yadav. Study of Thoracic Vertebral Synostosis in North India. American Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2014; 2(9):170-172. doi: 10.12691/ajmcr-2-9-2.

Correspondence to: Yogesh  Yadav, Department of Anatomy, Rama Medical College, Hapur, UP. Email:


The fusion of vertebral column is a rare anomaly usually congenital in origin. Fusion of the vertebra can be congenital or acquired. Embryologically, failure of resegmentation of the vertebra is the cause. The differentiation and resegmentation of vertebrae occur at the time of organogenesis. Thus resegmentation is the hallmark of vertebral development. Inappropriate vertebral fusion results in block vertebrae or spinal fusion or vertebral synostosis. Fusion of vertebrae can be acquired in case of trauma, tuberculosis and juvenile arthritis. It can occur at various levels viz., cervical, lumbar and thoracic vertebral levels in order of frequency. Among the 350 dry specimens of all vertebrae collected in the Department of Anatomy, two analomous sets of fused thoracic vertebrae were found. Knowledge about any deviation from the normal anatomy of our vertebral column is very essential especially for orthopedician, forensic pathologist, neurologist and clinical anatomist for diagnosing the patients with such vertebral anomalies. Any congenital or acquired abnormality in the vertebrae may be asymptomatic or a cause of discomfort and inability to carry out various day to day activities because of the important structure related to them.