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Risk Assessment of Trace Metal Intake through Consumption of Four Fish Species from Upper Region of Barrier Lagoon Coast Waters, Southwest, Nigeria

1Department of Biological Oceanography, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, Victoria Island, P.M.B. 12729, Lagos, Nigeria


Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2021, Vol. 9 No. 1, 16-21
DOI: 10.12691/jephh-9-1-3
Copyright © 2021 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kayode James Balogun. Risk Assessment of Trace Metal Intake through Consumption of Four Fish Species from Upper Region of Barrier Lagoon Coast Waters, Southwest, Nigeria. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2021; 9(1):16-21. doi: 10.12691/jephh-9-1-3.

Correspondence to: Kayode  James Balogun, Department of Biological Oceanography, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, Victoria Island, P.M.B. 12729, Lagos, Nigeria. Email: kayjaybal@yahoo.com

Abstract

This study assessed trace metals (Pb, Cr, Zn and Cu) content in the muscle tissues of four fish species (Sarotherodon melanotheron, Sardinella maderensis, Ethmalosa fimbriata and Cynoglossus senegalensis) collected bi-monthly from fishermen in the upper region of Barrier Lagoon coast waters, Nigeria. Trace metals were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Spectra AA-240, Agilent Technologies). Human health risk due to fish species consumption was assessed using non-carcinogenic (hazard quotient) and carcinogenic (cancer risk) health risk models. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of Pb, Cr, Zn and Cu in the fish species were 3.46 to 7.36, 6.72 to 15.02, 7.28 to 10.04 and 0.38 to 1.02 mg kg−1 wet weight, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of Pb in Ethmalosa fimbriata exceeded the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI). The hazard quotient (HQ) for Pb in Ethmalosa fimbriata and for Cr in all fish species were > 1, indicating consumption of those fish species may pose a risk to human health. Nevertheless, the carcinogenic risk for Pb was within acceptable level (value in between 10-6 and 10-4). Although, the investigated fish species might be safe for consumption at the current rate of ingestion of fish in Nigeria, high consumption of Ethmalosa fimbriata from upper region of barrier lagoon coast waters may pose a potential health risk due to elevated Pb in the fish.

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